How To Choose Lutein Supplementation Wisely?

    In recent years, with an advancement of digital technology and the rise of new media, people spend more time online than ever before at home, work and school. A trend survey released by the Specialist Medical Association in 2019 indicated that Taiwanese have been found to spend about 10.7 hours a day on digital device, approximately 2/3 of the day. Therefore, vision and eye health has become an unignorable national issue. Several studies have demonstrated that lutein supplementation can provide high-potency support to improve visual acuity and vision longevity, optimize the overall eye health. WHAT DOES LUTEIN DO FOR THE BODY? Lutein and zeaxanthin are the main pigments in the key parts of the body. Most research results showed that these two nutrients offer powerhouse support for vision health. They can effectively filter blue light, enhance acuity and help reduce negative effects of excessive digital screen time and blue light exposure. There are many lutein supplementations on the market, how to choose? 1. Lutein is available in two forms – "lutein esters", and "free lutein". Lutein is a carotenoid, a source of fat-soluble nutrients. The human body cannot synthesize lutein on its own, which means we must obtain this important nutrient from our diets or dietary supplements to meet the daily requirement. Common food sources include spinach, kale, cauliflower, peas, lettuce, bell peppers, and egg yolks. Lutein is available in two forms – lutein esters, and free lutein. Esterified lutein is mainly found in yellow-colored fruits or flowers, and the free form is mostly found in green leafy vegetables. A lutein ester has two extra fatty acid molecules. Naturally derived lutein is commercially extracted from marigold flowers. Upon saponification of the marigold extract, the lutein fatty acid esters are converted to free lutein. 2. The "free form" is better absorbed than the "esterified form"? Is it because the molecular weight of the free form is smaller? Compared with "free lutein", "lutein esters" have 50% more fatty acids in structure, so the molecular weight is larger than that of the "free form". "Lutein esters" must be decomposed by digestive enzymes before it can be absorbed and utilized, whereas "free lutein" does not need to go through the process of human digestion; therefore, is better absorbed by our body. Based on clinical studies, the effect of "free lutein" used in supplements on the absorption/bioavailability has been 5 times higher than "esterified lutein" (Edward P Norkus, 2010). However, there is still no consistent result between the absorbable efficiency of the two forms of lutein. The 2011 European Food Safety Authority report and the Japanese study showed that both forms of lutein can effectively increase the concentration of lutein in the body (Hiroko Yoshizako, 2016). Generally speaking, when it comes to choose a lutein supplement, you should first pay attention to the information of the supplement facts. Supposelly it contains 20 mg of "esterified lutein", which means 10 mg of it is "lutein ester", and the other 10 mg is fatty acid. So the lutein content is actually only half. If you choose the product contains 20 mg of "free lutein", because "free lutein" has been processed to remove fatty acids, the content of lutein would be exactly 20 mg. 3. How to take lutein for better absorption? Most studies have shown that dietary fat can enhance the absorption of carotenoids, and lutein is in fact one type of carotenoid. Studies have found that taking lutein with fat simultaneously can increase the absorption rate. Therefore, whether it is esterified or free lutein, it is recommended to supplement after meals (Nuray Z. Unlu, 2005). 4. The proper dosage of lutein supplements. Are there any side effects from taking too much? Internationally, there is no recommended daily intake for lutein supplementation currently, but nutritionists have advised consuming at least 6 mg daily. In 2013, the AREDS-2 Phase II clinical study published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) showed daily doses of 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin can be beneficial for our health. This study also became the golden ratio used in many subsequent formulations. It is clinically observed that when a person takes too much of lutein, the skin will turn slightly yellow. Once reducing the dose, the yellowish condition will subside and recover after a period of time, and there is no adverse effect on health (Katherine M. Ranard, 2017). According to the researches that long-term supplementation of lutein does not produce toxicity or teratogenicity, and is highly safe. The US FDA also recognizes it as a safe product (GRAS). Therefore, the recommended daily intake of lutein is 6~20 mg/day. Even though currently there is no recommended daily intake in Taiwan, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has recommended an upper limit of 30 mg/day. No matter what kind of supplemental form, long-term and continuous lutein supplementation can effectively maintain visual health! 5. The compound formulations with lutein can effectively improve visual performance. Zeaxanthin is commonly pair with lutein, the two ingredients absorb different wavelengths of blue light, they can complement with each other to provide double protection. Besides, ingredients such as astaxanthin, bilberry, fish oil, etc., also have been scientifically and clinically proven to be very beneficial to eye health. In particular, choosing clinically-proven astaxanthin and bilberry should be the guarantee of the potency. 6. What can't lutein be taken with? Are there any contraindications?  Lutein is generally suggested to be separated from carotenoids, because both are members of carotenoids and are fat-soluble nutrients with similar routes of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, there may be a problem of competitive absorption. Clinical studies have also found that if high doses of lutein combined with β-carotene, an inhibitory effect of β-carotene on lutein absorption would occured. If additional high doses of lutein and β-carotene need to be supplemented simultaneously, it is recommended to extend the time interval of the two nutrients or take them with meals, which could reduce the problem of competitive absorption. Moderate intake of carrots, sweet potatoes, etc. in the diet has little effect against the absorption of lutein. Only when a large amount of β-carotene is taken at the same time (such as carotene-containing multi-vitamins) will affect the potency of lutein. Therefore, among the vegetables and fruits from natural source, there is little chance to cause the problem of competitive absorption. There is no need to worry. 7. The guidelines for picking the right lutein supplements: 1). Form Matters! Choose the right form. There are many types of lutein products on the market according to consumers' eating habits, such as capsules, lozenges, drinks, foam tablets, jelly bars, etc. However, it should be noted that when the finished products are in the form of beverages, tablets and jelly bars, in order to adjust the taste and texture, unnecessary preservatives and artificial flavors may be added, which creating a body burden. It is recommended to choose plant-based, transparent capsules, so that the active ingredients can be completely retained in the capsule, and there is no need to add preservatives, artificial colors and titanium dioxide or other banned ingredients in the EU. 2). Pay attention to the actual content, not the added amount. Assuming that each lutein capsule contains 100 mg of marigold extract, which contains 20% lutein and 4% zeaxanthin, it can be calculated as each capsule contains 20 mg of lutein and 4 mg of zeaxanthin. This is the real actual content! 3). Choose the compound lutein formulation, such as combining high-concentration bilberry, astaxanthin or other formulas, so the better result can be achieved. Supplementing fish oil at the same time is good as well. However, it should be noted that the concentration of astaxanthin and bilberry should not be too low, otherwise the effect wouldn’t be visible. By clinical research, astaxanthin should be at least 4 mg per day and bilberry should be at least 80 mg per day are the ideal. 4). No matter what lutein supplement brand you choose in the end, one thing you must keep in mind – take it after meals regularly. In the long run, continuous supplementation will eventually lead to a better level of eye performance.  

如何聰明挑選葉黃素才不會踩地雷? 讓營養師一次跟你講明白

    近年來由於科技進步、網路影音興起,無論是上班族或學生族,3C 產品的使用時間越來越長,2019 年專科醫學會發布的趨勢調查顯示,台灣人每日 3C 的使用時間長達 10.7 小時,相當於每日有 2/3 時間都在使用 3C,因此,對於長時間使用 3C 後的保健,幾乎可說是全民議題,而補充葉黃素經過研究證實能有效提供 3C 族健康保健的效果喔! 首先,先來了解葉黃素如何作用? 葉黃素及玉米黃素是人體關鍵部位的主要色素,多數研究結果表明這兩種營養素是提升晶亮潤澤的重要成分,可有效過濾藍光,並增強敏銳度,以幫助減少長時間用 3C 所可能發生的傷害。 市面上葉黃素品項繁多,要怎麼挑選才是最適合自己的呢? 1. 葉黃素有分酯化型與游離型 葉黃素是類胡蘿蔔素的一種,為脂溶性營養素來源。人體無法自行合成,需透過飲食攝取達到每日需要量。常見的食物來源如菠菜、羽衣甘藍、花椰菜、豌豆、生菜、甜椒及蛋黃等。 葉黃素有酯化型和游離型兩種型式,酯化型主要存在於橘黃色水果或花中,游離型則多存在於綠葉蔬菜中。若是結構上連接了兩條脂肪,稱為酯化型葉黃素,目前市售的葉黃素多萃取自金盞花,為天然來源的酯化型結構,可透過皂化作用加工,去除脂肪酸後轉化為游離型的葉黃素。 2. 游離型較酯化型更好吸收? 是因為游離型的分子量較小? 酯化型的葉黃素在結構上與游離型相比多了 50% 脂肪酸,故分子量較游離型大,且酯化型須經過消化酵素分解才能被吸收利用,而游離型不須經過酵素作用,可直接吸收利用。 臨床研究發現補充游離型葉黃素,食用後生物利用率較酯化型高 5 倍 (Edward P Norkus, 2010),雖然如此,酯化型與游離型的吸收效率目前仍無一致的結果,2011 年歐洲食品安全局的報告及日本的研究結果顯示,兩種型式的葉黃素皆能有效提升體內葉黃素的濃度 (Hiroko Yoshizako, 2016)。 不過,一般在購買時,可先看一下成分標示的資訊,假設含有 20 毫克的酯化型葉黃素,其中 10 毫克是葉黃素酯,另外 10 毫克則是脂肪酸,因此實際上葉黃素含量只有一半;若選擇含有 20 毫克的游離型葉黃素,因已被加工去除脂肪酸,故葉黃素的含量即為 20 毫克。 3. 怎麼吃葉黃素的吸收效率更好? 多數研究表明,飲食中的油脂可加強類胡蘿蔔素的吸收,而葉黃素為類胡蘿蔔素的一種,研究發現與油脂一同食用,可增加吸收率。因此,無論是酯化型或游離型的葉黃素,建議飯後補充較佳。(Nuray Z. Unlu, 2005) 4. 葉黃素的食用劑量? 補充太多有副作用嗎? 國際上,目前並無建議的食用劑量,早期研究指出建議正常狀況下,每日至少補充 6 毫克葉黃素,可作為基礎保健的飲食目標。2013 年美國國家衛生研究院 (NIH) 發表的 AREDS-2 第二期臨床研究顯示,予以補充 10 毫克葉黃素 + 2 毫克玉米黃素,能有健康上的助益,此篇研究也是成為後續許多配方使用的黃金比例。 另外,美國華盛頓負責任營養委員會 (CRN) 之研究顯示,葉黃素每日 20 毫克是非常安全的食用量。而 ADI 曾建立指引,建議每公斤體重可食用 0~2 毫克的葉黃素,代表 60 公斤成年人可以每日最多食用到 120 毫克的葉黃素。臨床上觀察到若食用過多時,導致皮膚輕微泛黃,只要減少攝取,一段時間後泛黃的情形就會消退復原,對健康並無不良影響 (Katherine M. Ranard, 2017)。 目前研究顯示長期補充葉黃素,不會產生毒性或致畸胎性,安全性高,美國 FDA 也認定為安全性產品 (GRAS)。 因此,葉黃素的每日建議攝取量為 6~20 毫克/天,而台灣目前並無建議攝取量,僅衛福部建議上限攝取量為 30 毫克/天。不論是何種劑型,長期且持續補充才能有效維持明亮喔! 5. 複方加乘,有效提升水潤功效 葉黃素搭配的常見複方為玉米黃素,可吸收不同波長的藍光,與葉黃素達到互補,提供另一層保護力。而藻紅素 (蝦紅素)、山桑子、魚油等,在科學與臨床上也都經過證實,對於 3C 族的保健,能提供非常大的幫助性,尤其選用經過多方臨床驗證的蝦紅素與山桑子更是效果的保證。 6. 葉黃素與甚麼東西不能一起吃? 有禁忌嗎? 葉黃素通常建議與胡蘿蔔素分開,因為兩種皆屬於類胡蘿蔔素的成員,是脂溶性營養素,在腸胃道中吸收的路經相似,因此有可能產生競爭吸收的問題。臨床研究上亦有發現,若同時補充高劑量的葉黃素與 β-胡蘿蔔素,會明顯降低葉黃素與 β-胡蘿蔔素的吸收。 若同時額外補充高劑量的葉黃素與與 β-胡蘿蔔素時,建議將兩種營養素的補充時間間隔拉長或隔餐食用,即可降低競爭吸收的問題。飲食中適度的攝取胡蘿蔔、地瓜等,對於葉黃素的吸收影響不大,只有同時攝取大量的 β-胡蘿蔔素時 (例如含胡蘿蔔素的綜合維他命),才會影響葉黃素的吸收。因此一般天然來源的蔬果中,尚不足以造成競爭吸收的問題,請放心食用。 7. 葉黃素購買與挑選原則 : 1). 挑選合適的劑型。市面上葉黃素的產品型式眾多,如膠囊、錠劑、飲品、發泡錠、果凍條等,依據消費者食用習慣有多種選擇。 不過仍要注意,當成品為飲品、發泡錠及果凍條時,為了調整口味、口感,可能添加不必要的防腐劑及人工香料,增加身體負擔。建議可選擇植物性來源的透明膠囊型式,使有效成分完整保留在膠囊內,也無須添加防腐劑、人工色素與二氧化鈦等歐盟禁用成分,可安心服用。 2). 注意實際含量,而不是添加量。假設每一顆葉黃素膠囊中,金盞花萃取物含量有 100 毫克,其中含有葉黃素 20% 和玉米黃素 4%,計算過後可得到每一顆膠囊含有 20 毫克的葉黃素及 4 毫克的玉米黃素,如此才是真正的實際含量喔! 3). 搭配複方產品,如高濃度山桑子、蝦紅素等配方,食用上效果更加乘。更可以同時補充魚油,多管齊下,事半功倍。但要注意的是蝦紅素與山桑子濃度不可太低,否則效應不大,臨床研究上,通常蝦紅素建議每日至少 4 毫克以上,山桑子每日至少 80 毫克以上,才能有明顯助益。 4). 不論最後選擇哪種劑型,務必要記得持續補充且餐後服用,長期下來效果更好喔!  

How To Distinguish Active And Inactive Vitamin D? How Much Vitamin D Should You Take for Optimal Health?

    Vitamin D is very popular on the supplemental market, but it comes in many different forms, so how do you identify it? HOW TO DISTINGUISH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE VITAMIN D? 1. Active Form of Vitamin D : commonly found in medicines. 2. Inactive Form of Vitamin D : mainly used in dietary supplements. Inactive vitamin D generally can be divided into D3 and D2. The difference between "active" vitamin D and "inactive" vitamin D is that "inactive" vitamin D needs to be metabolized by the body before it becomes "active" for the human body to use, so it represents an additional layer of the body's control and regulation mechanism. Active D3 acts directly after ingestion. Although the effect is fast, it means that there is relatively less body control mechanism. Therefore, it is necessary to be very careful when taking it to avoid excessive side effects. Therefore, active form of vitamin D must be taken under the advice and supervision of medical personnel, and always pay attention to possible side effects such as nausea and vomiting. If you experience unwell symptoms, stop taking immediately and seek medical help. There is another way to identify the form of vitamin D, the English term of "active" vitamin D3 is “Calcitriol” whereas "inactive" vitamin D3 is “Cholecalciferol”. "Active" vitamin D3 is usually labeled with micrograms (common doses are 0.25 micrograms per capsule), while "inactive" vitamin D3 may range from 100-800 IU. Internet rumors have it that as long as it is labeled with micrograms, the D3 is the active form; on the other hand, when it is labeled with IU, the D3 is supposed to be the inactive kind. In fact, this saying is not completely correct. According to the regulations announced by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, food-grade inactive vitamin D needs to be marked with both international units (IU) and weight units (micrograms), and these two can be fixedly converted. The international conversion method for vitamin D is 1 microgram (ug) = 40 IU; therefore, 5 micrograms of inactive vitamin D3 equals 200 IU of vitamin D, and these two units need to be both labeled on the packaging. WHAT IS THE RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE OF VITAMIN D? In the "Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)", vitamin D is recommended to be 10 micrograms (400 IU) per day for infants and young children, and at least 10 micrograms (400 IU) per day for adults. For people age over 51, 15 micrograms (600 IU) per day is recommended. As for the daily "Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)" part, the daily upper limit for infants and young children aged 0-12 months is 25 micrograms (1000 IU), and from aged 1 to adults, the daily upper limit is 50 micrograms (2000 IU). As for the standard in the United States, it is even higher. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for infants 0-6 months is 1000 IU per day; The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for infants 7-12 months is 1500 IU per day. Besides, children 1-3 years : 2500 IU per day ; children 4-8 years : 3,000 IU per day ; children aged 9 years and older, adults, pregnant and breastfeeding women : 4000 IU per day. WHAT IS A HEALTHY LEVEL OF VITAMIN D IN THE BODY? Serum vitamin D testing is currently available in many medical institutions to measure the level of vitamin D [ 25(OH)D ] in the body. According to the general recommended value, the level of vitamin D in the body : <20 ng/mL:Vitamin D Deficiency. The US NIH is set at 12 ng/mL <30 ng/mL:Vitamin D Insufficiency ≥30 ng/mL:Normal ≥60 ng/mL:There may be potential side effects Therefore, if you want to know the vitamin D levels in your body, you can go to a medical center to do a 25(OH)D test. WHICH IS BETTER, VITAMIN D2 OR VITAMIN D3? The benefits of vitamin D are many, including enhancing calcium absorption, helping the growth and development of bones and teeth, promoting the release of bone calcium to maintain blood calcium levels normal, and helping to maintain the normal physiology of nerves and muscles. In fact, there are many more health benefits of vitamin D have be proven abroad. In the clinical survey of Taiwanese people, there are actually quite a lot of people have vitamin D Insufficiency. Therefore, normal daily supplementation is needed to maintain healthy and regulate physiological functions. Food-grade inactive vitamin D can be divided into vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism in 2011 (Robert P. Heaney, 2011) pointed out that vitamin D3 was found to be 87% more effective than vitamin D2 in increasing the level of vitamin D in the body. Another 2015 study (Beatriz Oliveri, 2015) found among testing subjects, those taking vitamin D3, even after stopping supplementation, maintained higher levels for up to 77 days than those taking vitamin D2. Hence, international experts and professional organizations mostly recommend direct supplementation of vitamin D3, which is considered more effective than vitamin D2. HOW TO MAINTAIN HEALTHY VITAMIN D LEVELS? For healthy adults, we would recommend maintaining 25(OH)D levels between 30-50 ng/mL. In general food, such as fish, eggs, milk, etc., all contain vitamin D, which can be supplemented normally on a daily basis. However, it is hard to supplement the body's vitamin D needs through diet alone. Sun exposure can also promote the synthesis of vitamin D, but it will also be affected by weather, latitude, sun exposure time, etc., so it is not good enough. In addition, sun exposure might cause some damage, such as darkened skin, sunburned or spots; furthermore, ultraviolet rays could be harmful to the eyes. Therefore, it is generally recommended that dietary supplements are a more effective way in terms of vitamin D supplementation. To conclude, for vitamin D supplementation, inactive form of vitamin D3 is the top choice; 400-800 IU is advised for basic health care daily. If you want to supplement a higher level, there are many large-scale research or professional institutions abroad have pointed out that taking 2000 IU or 4000 IU per day is safe. However, if you supplement with a higher dose of vitamin D, unless it is a special group, or a special purpose, short-term supplement or under the advice of a medical professional, it is still recommended that high-dose supplements should be followed by regular blood tests. Although daily vitamin D3 supplementation is recommended, nutritional supplements are only supplements. Maintaining a healthy and balanced diet, keeping proper outdoor exercise and sun exposure are still important tips for staying health.  

活性與非活性維生素 D 如何區分? 維生素 D 怎麼補? 該補多少? 營養師一次跟你講清楚

    維生素 D 在市場上是相當熱門的保健品,但含有許多不同的形式,所以該如何辨認呢? 活性和非活性維生素 D 如何區分? 1. 活性維生素 D:常見於藥品 2. 非活性維生素 D:主要用於保健食品,非活性又分為維生素 D3 以及維生素 D2 「活性」維生素 D 與「非活性」維生素D的差異在於,「非活性」維生素 D 需要經過身體代謝轉換後,才會變成「活性」形式供人體利用,所以代表多了一層身體的管控調節機制。而活性 D3 食用後直接作用,雖然作用快,但是代表相對少了一層身體的控管機制,因此食用上就需要相當小心,以免過量導致副作用。所以「活性」維生素 D 必需在醫療人員的建議與監督下食用,並隨時注意是否有現噁心、想吐等可能副作用,若有出現不適症狀,趕緊停止食用,並且找醫療人員尋求建議與診斷。 另一個辨識的方法,「活性」維生素 D3 的英文名稱是 Calcitriol (骨化三醇),「非活性」維生素 D3 的英文名稱則是 Cholecalciferol (膽鈣化醇)。「活性」維生素 D3 通常標示是微克 (常見劑量是每顆含量 0.25 微克),而「非活性」維生素 D3 則可能從 100-800 IU 不等。至於網路流傳只要用微克標示就是活性 D3,用 IU 標示就是非活性 D3,其實並非完全正確。因為在衛福部公布的法規上,食品級的非活性維生素 D,仍需要同時標示國際單位 (IU) 以及重量單位 (微克),而這兩者是可以固定換算的,在國際上維生素 D 的換算方式是 1 微克 (ug) = 40 IU,所以 5 微克的非活性維生素 D3 等於 200 IU 的維生素 D,而這兩個單位需同時標示於外盒。 維生素 D 每日建議攝取多少呢? 維生素 D 在「國人膳食營養素參考攝取量 (Dietary Reference Intake,DRIs)」中,嬰幼兒出生開始建議每日 10 微克 (400 IU),成人也是建議每日至少 10 微克 (400 IU),而 51 歲以上建議每日 15 微克 (600 IU)。至於每日「上限攝取量 (Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,UL)」的部分,0-12 個月嬰幼兒每日上限值是 25 微克 (1000 IU),而在1歲開始到成年人,每日上限值是 50 微克 (2000 IU) 。 至於在美國部分的標準則更高,根據美國國家衛生研究院 (NIH) 的資料,0-6 個月嬰幼兒每日上限攝取量 1000 IU,7-12 個月幼兒每日上限 1500 IU,1-3 歲每日上限 2500 IU,4-8 歲每日上限 3000 IU,9 歲以上、成年人與孕婦及哺乳媽媽的每日上限攝取量都是 4000 IU。 體內多少維生素 D 算是健康呢? 目前在許多醫療院所提供有血清維生素 D 的檢測,檢測體內維生素 D [ 25(OH)D ] 的含量。一般建議數值,體內維生素 D 的含量: <20 ng/mL:屬於維生素 D 缺乏 (Deficiency),美國 NIH 則訂為 12 ng/mL <30 ng/mL:屬於維生素 D 不足 (Insufficiency) ≥30 ng/mL:正常 ≥60 ng/mL:可能會有潛在的副作用 所以若想得知體內維生素 D 的含量,可以到醫療院所做 25 (OH) D 的檢驗,即可得知目前身體含量狀況。 維生素 D2 和維生素 D3 哪個好? 維生素 D 的好處相當多,包含增進鈣吸收,幫助骨骼與牙齒的生長發育,促進釋放骨鈣以維持血鈣平衡,有助於維持神經、肌肉的正常生理。而在國外還有更多的健康上益處,這些經過非常多的研究證實。而國人的臨床調查上,維生素 D 不足的人其實相當多,因此每日正常的補充,有助於維持健康調節生理機能。 而在食品級的非活性維生素 D 又區分為維生素 D2 與維生素 D3,在 2011 年發表於 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 期刊的研究指出,發現維生素 D3 對於提升體內維生素 D 含量的效果,比維生素 D2 高了 87% (Robert P. Heaney, 2011)。 另一篇 2015 年的研究發現 (Beatriz Oliveri, 2015),食用維生素 D3 的受測者,即使停止補充後,比食用維生素 D2 的人相比,可以維持體內較高濃度達 77 天。 因此,在國際上的專家與專業機構,大多建議直接補充維生素 D3,會比維生素 D2 來的更有效益。 如何維持健康的維生素 D 含量? 對於健康的成年人,我們會建議可以維持體內 25 (OH) D 數值於 30-50 ng/mL 之間。在一般食物中,包含魚類、雞蛋、奶類等都含有維生素 D,日常還是可以正常補充,只是要單靠飲食補足體內維生素 D 所需,其實較為困難。日曬部分,也可以促進維生素 D 的合成,但同樣會受到天氣、緯度、日曬時間等影響,所以效果不完美,加上日曬導致的皮膚變黑、曬傷、長斑,紫外線對於眼睛的傷害,更需要注意。因此,一般建議營養品是可以較為迅速有效的補充方式 而維生素 D 的補充,仍首選非活性的維生素 D3,基礎保健每日可以食用 400-800 IU。而若欲補充較高含量,國外有許多大型研究或專業機構指出每日食用 2000 IU 或 4000 IU 都是相當安全的食用量,但如果補充較高的含量,除非是特殊族群、或特殊目的性、短期補充或是在醫療人員的建議下,不然其實高劑量的補充仍建議可以定期抽血追蹤檢驗。 雖然建議每日補充維生素 D3,但營養品只是輔助,維持健康均衡的飲食,適當的戶外運動與日曬,仍然是維持健康的重要秘訣喲。  

Can Women Use Herbal Extracts During Pregnancy?

    In addition to being used in traditional Chinese medicine, there are more and more herbs used in general diets or nutritional supplements, such as green tea extracts, turmeric, etc. These well-known ingredients are all belong to the category of herbs. Generally speaking in terms of Western medicine, it’s actually less recommended for pregnant women to use ingredients containing herbal extracts, because many ingredients have not been approved by the FDA and have not been tested for safety in pregnancy. Therefore, it would be better to avoid the use of herbal products in diets or supplements during pregnancy in order to prevent potential safety hazards. Moreover, the manufacturer's extraction and processing technology will affect the purity of the back end and whether there are other residual components. In other words, even the same herb may have different qualities from different raw material suppliers. Although herbs are natural, they are not necessarily safe for pregnant women. Recommended by the FDA in the U.S., it is best to consult a physician or someone professionally trained in medical fields before taking any herbal ingredients during pregnancy. Because some herbs contain ingredients that may increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm labour, stimulate uterus, or they may be harmful to your baby during pregnancy. For the same herb, different parts may have different efficacy or different risks. In Taiwan, the Ministry of Health and Welfare have compiled a list of different parts of herbs as regulations. Some herbs may be safe in the daily diet; however, taking in large amounts or consuming high concentrations of extracts directly could be dangerous. Herbs commonly found in diets or dietary supplements include: Turmeric: Turmeric itself has good anti-inflammatory effects. In food, curries also contain turmeric, but they have been recognized as generally safe due to the low content. However, for the turmeric extracts (curcumin) in dietary supplements, because of its high concentration, experts usually recommend to avoid it during pregnancy generally. Because curcumin has not been tested for safety in pregnancy clinically, and excessive doses may lead to the potential risk of premature birth or miscarriage. Rosemary: Rosemary is also a widely used herb in food. For the solid rosemary leaves used as a spice in the diet, it is safe to eat due to small amounts. However, once rosemary is extracted and used as an additive in dietary supplements or medicine, it is not good for pregnant women. The American Pregnancy Association indicated that rosemary extracts in high concentrations or in medicinal doses can cause uterine irritation; thus, pregnant women are advised to avoid rosemary extracts. Two studies pointed to the potential hormonal effects of rosemary extracts (Lemonica., 1996; Zhu et al., 1998); the preliminary evidence showed that it can be embryotoxic, and it has been traditionally used as abortion pills. Therefore, pregnant women or women who are planning to conceive are advised not to take this ingredient. Besides, patients who are at risk of iron deficiency should also avoid rosemary because it can reduce iron absorption (Samman et al., 2001). In addition, people with coagulation-related disorders or taking anticoagulants, or those who anticipate surgery should also be aware that rosemary extract may increase the risk of bleeding due to its anticoagulant properties (Yamamoto et al. , 2006). However, due to its antioxidant properties, rosemary extracts are often added to fish oil products as an antioxidant to avoid fish oil oxidation in foreign countries. Anyhow, it is recommended to avoid it as much as possible during pregnancy. Therefore, if pregnant women choose common dietary supplements in the form of "soft capsules", such as fish oil, lutein, etc., please remember to check carefully whether they contain rosemary extract to prevent accidental Ingestions. Ginger: Ginger is another common ingredient used in our diet; as a spice, it’s safe with small amounts. In fact, ginger has been shown to relieve symptoms of nausea and vomiting while pregnant. Therefore, ginger has been used in some maternal dietary supplements to reduce the discomfort during pregnancy. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects approximately 80-90% of pregnant women, the only difference is the degree of discomfort. Most pregnant women experience both symptoms at the same time, a few of them have nausea without vomiting or retching, and very few experience only vomiting. It typically begins around week 4-9 of pregnancy, these symptoms get worst around week 7-12, and gradually decreases after week 16. About 15-30% of pregnant women continually experience the sickness until 20 weeks, or even before delivery. Some published studies have shown that giving pregnant women one gram of fresh ginger per day for four consecutive days could be helpful in reducing nausea and vomiting. In 2012, a study published by Plengsuriyakarn et al. indicated that a large dose of 5 grams per kilogram of body weight of ginger is still considered as safe and non-toxic. However, some experts pointed out that excessive consumption of ginger may be unsafe and advised to stop eating, especially for pregnant women who are about to give birth. Pregnant women who have had miscarriage, vaginal bleeding, or coagulation-related conditions are specially recommended not to eat ginger for the time being. Because high concentrations of ginger powder may increase the risk of bleeding due to the blood clotting reduction effects, especially when taking in with other herbs or medicines that have the same effect, the power will be enhanced. All in all, ginger is generally a safe ingredient for pregnant women, and many studies have confirmed that the daily consumption of ginger (ginger tea, ginger supplements, etc.) within 1000 mg is safe, and it can reduce the discomfort of pregnancy. However, if you want to take in large amounts of ginger powder, extracts or ginger tea, or if you have had a special medical history or condition during pregnancy, it is recommended to consult your obstetrician or medical professional before use. Ginkgo/ Ginkgo Biloba: In traditional medicine, Ginkgoa is a well-established medicinal plant. Ginkgo is commonly used in oral nutritional products as well; there are even chewing gums containing ginkgo on the market in Japan. However, in Taiwan's regulations, ginkgo biloba extract is listed as a medicinal ingredient and cannot be used in food. Only ginkgo fruit can be added to food. Ginkgo biloba is generally considered to have many phytochemicals, has antioxidant capacity and has been used to improve memory function, but this part of the effect is still questioned by many experts. As for pregnant women, it is recommended not to take the ingredients contain ginkgo, especially those who are about to give birth. Because ginkgo may have anti-platelet properties, it may prolong the time and risk of bleeding. Even for ordinary people, if you're planning to have surgery, stop taking ginkgo beforehand. During lactation the safety of ginkgo is still unknown, so it’s better not to use ginkgo at all as recommendation. Other common herbs to avoid while trying to conceive, during pregnancy, and lactation include : North American Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Saw Palmetto, Goldenseal, Ephedra, Yohimbe, Pay D' Arco, Passion Flower, Roman Chamomile, Pennyroyal and Aloe. During the time of trying to conceive, pregnancy, and lactation have certain needs for basic nutrients, including B vitamins, Omega-3, iron, calcium, zinc, and lutein. However, if you want to take herbal-related ingredients, it is recommended that you consult your obstetrician, physician or professionally-trained medical staffs before using to ensure the safety.


    草本 (Herbs) 或草藥在除了在中醫使用外,目前也越來越多成分使用在一般飲食或是營養補充品中,舉凡我們常見的綠茶萃取物、薑黃等其實都屬於草本範疇的成分。一般在西醫上,其實較不建議孕婦使用含草本萃取的成分,因為很多成分並沒有通過 FDA 核准做過孕婦安全性的試驗,所以基本上,孕婦的飲食或營養補充品,能夠避開最好,以免有潛在性的風險。加上即使是草本本身,但不同製造商的萃取技術與加工技術,會影響到後端的純度以及是否有其他殘留成分,所以即使同樣的草本,在不同的原料商也可能有不同的品質。 草本雖然天然,但不見得對於孕婦都是安全的。在美國 FDA 即建議孕婦若要食用任何含草本的成分,請先諮詢過醫師或是經過相關專業訓練的醫事人員。因為部分草本所含的成分有可能會導致流產、早產、刺激子宮收縮、或甚至傷害到胎兒的風險。而同樣的草本,不同部位也可能有不同的功效性或不同的風險,在台灣衛福部亦有針對不同部位的草本列為規範。而部分草本,也許在日常飲食中是安全的,但食用大量或是直接食用高濃度的萃取物亦有可能反而會有風險。 在飲食或營養補充品中常見的草本包括: 薑黃 (Turmeric): 薑黃本身具有良好的抗發炎效果,在我們飲食中的咖哩也含有薑黃的成分,但在飲食中的咖哩由於含量較低,一般公認較為安全。但若是經過萃取作為營養補充品的薑黃素 (Curcumin) 營養品,由於其濃度高,一般專家就會建議避免食用。因為具有藥效食用量的薑黃素並沒有經過臨床孕婦安全性試驗,而過高劑量有可能導致早產或是流產的潛在性風險。 迷迭香 (Rosemary): 迷迭香同樣是飲食中常見的香料,若在飲食中作為香料的固體迷迭香葉,基本上使用量少,是安全的,無須過度擔心。但一但經過萃取後作為添加物在保健食品中或做為藥效用的迷迭香萃取物 (Rosemary Extract),對於孕婦就不適合。 美國孕婦協會 (American Pregnancy Association) 指出迷迭香萃取物在含量較高或是藥用劑量下,會對子宮造成刺激,因此建議孕婦避免食用迷迭香萃取物。而兩篇研究指出,迷迭香萃取物由於其潛在性會對賀爾蒙造成的影響 (Lemonica., 1996; Zhu et al., 1998),初步證據顯示會有胚胎毒性 (Embryotoxic),而傳統上更有用作墮胎藥使用,因此建議懷孕婦女或是備孕婦女須特別注意不要食用到此成分。而缺鐵風險的病人,也應該避免食用迷迭香,因為其會降低鐵的吸收 (Samman et al., 2001)。 此外,有凝血相關疾病或是食用抗凝血藥的人,或預期手術的病患也須注意,因為迷迭香萃取物有抗凝血的特性而可能會增加出血的風險 (Yamamoto et al., 2006)。 而迷迭香萃取物由於其抗氧化特性,因此在國外常見添加在魚油保健品中作為避免魚油氧化的抗氧化劑使用。但建議在孕婦食用上,盡量避免較佳。所以孕婦若挑選常見的 "軟膠囊" 形式營養保健品,例如魚油、葉黃素等,記得先仔細篩選是否含有迷迭香萃取物的成分,以免不小心誤食。 生薑 (Ginger): 薑是飲食中常使用的成分,若飲食中少量作為香料調味使用是安全的。但生薑對於孕婦有另一層面的幫助,能夠降低孕婦孕期的噁心與嘔吐感 (Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy; NVP),因此在少數孕婦保健品中有添加薑的成分來降低孕期的不適感。孕婦孕期的噁心與嘔吐影響大約 80-90% 的孕婦,只是程度的嚴重與否。大部分的孕婦會同時經歷此兩種症狀,少數會有噁心感但沒有伴隨嘔吐或乾嘔 (retching),至於只有單純經歷嘔吐症狀的幾乎很少。通常孕期噁心嘔吐 (NVP) 大約在受孕後 4-9 週出現,而在 7-12 週時到達顛峰,而在 16 週後逐漸降低。大約有 15-30% 的孕婦,經歷此一症狀會持續到 20 週左右,或甚至到產前都還會有此種不舒服的感覺。 曾發表的研究指出給予孕婦每天食用一克的新鮮生薑,連續四天,發覺可以有效降低孕期噁心嘔吐症狀。而在 2012 年由 Plengsuriyakarn 等人發表的研究指出每公斤體重給予 5 公克的大量生薑仍然是安全無毒性的。但部分專家指出若過度食用大量的生薑萃取物,仍可能不安全,尤其建議在即將臨盆的孕婦先暫停食用含生薑的成分;而曾經有流產、陰道出血、或凝血相關狀況的孕婦,則建議暫時不要食用生薑,因為高濃度的生薑粉末可能會因為降低凝血作用而增加出血的風險性,特別是與其他有相同效果的草本或藥物一起食用會加強其作用。 總而言之,生薑對於孕婦來說一般是安全的成分,在許多研究上證實每日食用 1000 毫克以內的生薑 (生薑茶、生薑膠囊補充品等) 都是安全的,並且可以降低孕期的不適感。但若更大量食用生薑粉末、萃取物或飲用生薑茶,以及原本懷孕上有特殊病史或是狀況的孕婦,建議先諮詢過婦產科醫師或專業醫療人士後再使用。 銀杏 (Ginkgo/ Ginkgo Biloba): 傳統醫療裡,銀杏也常被當做藥材;銀杏也常見使用於口服營養品,甚至日本市面上還有含銀杏成分的口香糖。但在台灣法規部分,銀杏葉萃取物是不能用在食品的成份,是藥用成分,只有銀杏果才可以添加在食品裡。而銀杏一般被認為具有許多植化素,具抗氧化能力,並且改善記憶力的效果,但這部分的功能其實仍受到不少專家的質疑。 而在孕婦部分,建議不可食用銀杏的成分,特別是即將臨盆的孕婦。因為銀杏可能有抗凝血 (anti-platelet) 的特性,可能延長流血的時間與風險,即使在一般人,若有預期動手術等計畫,一般都會建議先行停用。至於在哺乳期,銀杏的安全性仍然未知,因此仍建議哺乳期孕婦禁止食用銀杏的成分。 而其他在備孕、孕期、哺乳期建議要避開的常見草本包括:Black Cohosh (北美黑升麻)、Blue Cohosh (藍升麻)、Saw Palmetto (鋸棕櫚)、Goldenseal (金印草)、Ephedra (麻黃)、Yohimbe (育亨賓)、Pay D’ Arco (保哥果)、Passion Flower (西番蓮)、Roman Chamomile (羅馬洋甘菊)、Pennyroyal (普列薄荷)、Aloe (蘆薈)等。 備孕、懷孕、與哺乳期對於基礎營養素的需求是肯定的,包括 B 群維生素、膽鹼、Omega-3、鐵、鈣、鋅、與葉黃素等。但若要食用草本相關成分,則建議您先諮詢過您的婦產科醫師,或經過相關專業訓練的醫師或醫療人員後再行使用,以確保安全。

Why Do Vitamin B-complex Supplements Turn Urine Yellow Color? Don't Be Fooled Around By Marketing-Oriented Rumors!

    We can often see information on the Internet that attempts to mislead consumers with wrong messages. Some consumers might be fooled around and misunderstand the dietary supplements. Today, we’re going to talk about a marketing-oriented misconception that often appears on the Internet about “why do vitamin B supplements turn urine yellow?” Rumor has it that the yellowish urine after taking B-complex vitamin is because this vitamin is chemical synthesis, it cannot be absorbed well. Therefore, this yellow urine is often teased as “expensive urine” (cannot be absorbed, just waste away). This definitely is a marketing-oriented misunderstanding! Why does urine turn yellow after taking vitamin B-complex? The main reason is due to vitamin B2; besides, vitamin B12 also has a slight impact. Vitamin B2 is commonly known as riboflavin, a term derived from the Latin word ‘flavus’ that means yellow. Vitamin B12 is found only in foods of animal origin; liver and egg yolk are the best food sources of riboflavin. One of the most important functions of vitamin B2 in the body is to provide energy. According to the literature quoted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), when a single diet or supplement consumption exceeds 27 mg, the body will only absorb a small part and store it in the body. The extra part is excreted through urine. Vitamin B2 is very safe, even if the consumption is high, there are few cases of side effects. In a study, even if the ultra-high content of 400 mg was consumed daily for three consecutive months, it is unlikely to cause any harm (by Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. 1998). To conclude, vitamin B2 is a very safe nutrient. Understand this is a metabolic mechanism, you should know the rumor of poor-absorbed chemical synthesis vitamin Bs make the urine turn yellow is false : 1. The yellow color of urine has nothing to do with whether the vitamin is natural or chemical, but with the amount that consumed. Whether it is natural or cheap chemically synthesized vitamins, if you take vitamin B complex without vitamin B2, your urine will not go yellowish; if your vitamin B-complex supplement has high amount of vitamin B2, your body will absorb enough amount of it, and the excess will be eliminated. As for how much the body absorbs and excretes, it is related to whether the individual's body needs and if the body’s reserves is sufficient (Lee and McCormick, 1983). 2. The yellow color of urine is also generally related to whether the individual drinks enough water. In regular diet, when you don’t drink enough water, your urine may still turn into a strong yellow. 3. According to the data of NIH, in daily food, beef liver (fried) is rich in vitamin B2, and every 3 ounces (about 90 grams) contains 2.9 mg of vitamin B2. The truth is if you consume a lot of beef liver, even though it is average food, your urine color may still look very yellow! Because it contains a high amount of vitamin B2. 4. After supplementing vitamin B-complex or multivitamin, the urine does not turn yellow, which may mean that the contents of the supplements are too low, which is not enough for the needs of human body, so there is no excess content to eliminate. Due to the difference of personal lifestyle and diet conditions, each person's demand for nutritional products could be varies. The high-quality vitamin B-complex and other dietary supplements should take into account individual nutritional requirements and differences, which means that they can met different people’s daily needs. When your urine turns yellow color after supplementing vitamin B-complex, it means that vitamin B-complex can well support your body's daily needs, and only a small superfluous amount will be excreted from the body. As for what kind of people belong to the high-risk group of vitamin B2 deficiency? Sush as : 1. Vegetarian athlete. Metabolism during exercise consumes a lot of vitamin B2, but vegetarians cannot get animal-sourced vitamin B2, so it is very possible they could suffer from vitamin B2 deficiency. 2. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and babies. Due to the increased physical needs of pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers, if they seldom eat meat or dairy products, as well as vegetarian pregnant women, there may be the possibility of vitamin B2 deficiency. 3. Vegan. A vegan diet usually does not have any source of meat, and if they do not consume enough dairy products, it is also a high-risk group that may be deficient in vitamin B2.  


    我們常常在網路上可以看到企圖用錯誤訊息來誤導消費者的資訊,導致消費者對於營養品本身的認知產生誤解。今天要來談談網路常出現的吃完 B 群尿液變黃代表食用化學維他命無法吸收,代表昂貴的尿液,這一個行銷導向的錯誤認知。 食用B群後為什麼尿液會變黃呢?最主要的原因在於維生素 B2,其次維生素 B12 也會稍有影響。維生素 B2 又稱為核黃素,英文名稱是 Riboflavin,flavin 來自拉丁文的字尾 flavus – 代表黃色,在食物中,包括蛋黃、動物肝臟等都是來源。而維生素 B2 在體內最主要的功能之一就是提供能量。根據美國國家衛生研究院 (NIH) 引述的文獻顯示,當單次飲食或補充品的食用量超過 27 毫克,身體就只會吸收一小部分並儲存在體內。多餘的部分,就經由尿液排出體外。維生素 B2 營養素,本身相當安全,即使食用較高食用量,也鮮少有任何副作用產生的案例。研究中,即使每日食用超高含量 400 毫克,並且連續三個月,也沒有任何副作用產生 (Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.1998),因此維生素 B2 是相當安全的營養素。 所以經由這個代謝機制,維他命是化學的所以無法吸收才會經由尿液排除是錯誤的觀念。 1. 尿液變黃,跟維他命是食物或化學無關,跟食用量有關。無論是天然或廉價化學合成的維生素,若食用不含維生素 B2 的維生素 B 群,尿液仍不會變黃;若食用含高量維生素 B2 的維生素 B 群,人體吸收足夠份量後,多餘即會經由尿液排除。至於人體吸收多少以及排出多少,則與個人身體所需與體內存量是否足夠有關 (Lee and McCormick, 1983)。 2. 尿液變黃,在一般來說,跟飲用水是否足量也有關。即使日常生活飲食,若飲水不足,尿液仍可能變為濃黃色。 3. 根據 NIH 的資料,在日常食物中,牛肝 (油煎) 就含有豐富的維生素 B2,每 3 盎司 (約 90 公克) 就含有 2.9 毫克的維生素 B2,所以若食用較多牛肝,即使屬於一般食物,因含有高量的維生素 B2,食用後,尿液還是可能會變黃喲! 4. 食用維生素 B 群或綜合維他命營養品後,尿液沒有變黃,則可能代表營養品中含量太低,對於人體需求根本不足,因此並沒有多餘含量可以排除。 由於個人生活型態作息以及飲食狀況不同,每個人對於營養品的需求程度也有差異。而高品質的維生素 B 群與營養補充品,應該要考量到個人營養需求與差異,代表在不同人以及不同的生活作息需求下,都能滿足。當食用維生素 B 群尿液變黃後,代表能補充人體每日足量需求,才會有額外少量排出體外。 至於什麼樣的人會屬於缺乏維生素 B2 的高風險族群呢?包含 : 1. 素食者運動員。運動過程代謝由於會消耗大量的維生素 B2,但素食者因為沒有動物性食物來源補充維生素 B2,因此有可能產生缺乏的狀況。 2. 孕婦、哺乳媽媽與寶寶。孕婦或哺乳媽媽因身體需求提高,若鮮少食用肉類或奶類製品,以及吃素的孕媽咪,有可能也會有維生素 B2 不足的可能性。 3. 純素者。純素飲食,通常沒有肉類來源,若加上沒有攝取足夠乳製品,也是維生素 B2 可能缺乏的高風險族群。  

10 Rumors About Fish Oil Supplements

    Rumor 1 : The "golden ratio" of EPA and DHA is supposed to be 3 : 2? Answer : Wrong. There is no so-called golden ratio, it is a marketing gimmick. The 3 : 2 ratio of EPA and DHA is mainly because the extracted fish oil from small deep-sea fish species (such as sardines and anchovies) contains approximately 180 mg (18%) of EPA and 120 mg (12%) of DHA per 1000 mg of fish oil. In fact, the ratio of EPA to DHA in fish oil varies by different fish species. For example, the ratio of EPA to DHA in cod liver oil is approximately 9% and 14% whereas the ratio in salmon is approximately 9% EPA and 10% DHA. In terms of the functions of EPA and DHA, everyone has different needs. In general, infants, school-age children, pregnant women, and silver-haired people have a greater demand for DHA. On the other hand, for people love to eat large amounts of fish and meats, or have physical conditions that may be caused by improper diet, their demand for EPA is relatively higher. There is no so-called golden ratio, everyone's needs are different, therefore different fish oil formulas are required. Some manufacturers take the easy approach and sell the same kind of fish oil to all people. This is not right. For example, children and pregnant women are advised to avoid consumption the fish oil with too high EPA. Rumor 2 : You can't co-supplement fish oil and calcium, there will be a saponification reaction, and even cause diarrhea? Answer : Wrong. Fish oil and calcium together do not produce a saponification reaction. This is a misconception. Let us first understand what is the saponification reaction. The occurrence of the "saponification reaction" mainly requires the existence of three conditions, including : Grease Strong alkali aqueous solution (such as sodium hydroxide, etc.) The temperature must be at least 70 degrees The saponification reaction is an exothermic reaction and a slower chemical reaction. Therefore, vigorous reactions such as constant and rapid stirring of the solution at high temperature or in a physical way are required to promote the reaction. After understanding the saponification reaction, let's get back to discuss the issue of fish oil and calcium. Basically, most of the calcium is neutral to weakly alkaline, so it is not compatible with the strong alkali required for the saponification reaction. If the calcium is a strong base, you probably already burned your mouth and stomach while you were supplementing with calcium capsules. For the temperature part, human body maintains a relatively constant body temperature, and the body temperature is kept at around 37.5 degrees C. Even if you have a fever, exceeding 40 degrees C is very serious; you should run to see a doctor in that case. How can it be possible to reach the 70 degrees required for the saponification reaction? In the digestive and peristaltic part of the stomach, there is a big difference from the rapid stirring required to cause the saponification reaction. It is difficult to form the conditions for the saponification reaction. Therefore, the co-supplementation of fish oil and calcium is safe and it doesn't cause the saponification reaction. Rumor 3 : What is the "Triglyceride Type" emphasized by fish oil products? Will it cause the lipid levels in my blood too high!? Answer : Wrong. "Triglyceride Type (TG)" represents the molecular type of fatty acids in fish oil. The natural triglyceride type of fish oil means that these fats are easier to be digested and decomposed during the digestion process, compared with the concentrated synthetic ethyl ester type (EE) fish oil on the market. It can increase the absorption rate and utilization of omega-3 fatty acids in the human body. As for "the doubts whether it will cause high blood lipids (triglycerides) ", actually this refers to another type of triglycerides. These blood lipids do not come from the fat in the die. Instead, due to the excessive consumption of carbohydrates, the body produces too much insulin in the blood for metabolism, which in turn leads to synthesis by the liver. Thus, fish oil in the form of triglycerides has nothing to do with your blood lipids! Rumor 4 : Dripping fish oil on the styrofoam will cause the styrofoam to melt, is it because the fish oil contains organic solvents!? Answer : Wrong. This issue is actually a completely wrong perception. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has previously published answers regarding the rumor. The explanation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare is quoted as follows: "For some fish oil supplements on the market, when dropping it onto styrofoam, the styrofoam was dissolved. The phenomenon is due to the EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) contained in fish oil has a higher content of "ethyl ester". The structural polarity of this component is similar to that of styrofoam, so it will be miscible with styrofoam, which is a normal phenomenon. The highly concentrated ethyl ester (EE) form in the fish oil is precisely the reason causes this situation to occur. This also means that you must not use styrofoam containers to contain concentrated fish oil products. On the other hand, concentrated fish oil in the form of natural triglycerides does not cause this situation. Rumor 5 : Some advertisements state that krill oil has a higher human body utilization rate of EPA and DHA, so taking krill oil is better than fish oil!? Answer : Wrong. In a randomized double-blind experiment published in the journal Lipids in Health & Disease in 2015, a total of 66 subjects targeted triglyceride fish oil (TG) and ethyl fish oil (EE) and krill oil (Krill Oil). After 4 weeks of continuous supplementation, it was found that at the same dose, compared with fish oil, the effect of krill oil is not much different in its bioavailability. In addition, krill is a shrimp-like crustacean, which plays a very important role in the marine food chain. Considering the significant impact of krill catching on the ecological chain, it has been explicitly prohibited by laws in the West Coast of the United States, Norway and Antarctica.  TruOmega's highly concentrated fish oil comes from small fish species, including sardines and anchovies. It is abundant in quantity, has a shorter life cycle, and reproduces quickly. It is not only less likely to accumulate environmental pollutants, but also suitable for a sustainable environment in terms of the source of fish oil. Rumor 6 : It says over the Internet that only supercritical extraction technology can extract good fish oil!? Answer : Wrong. This propaganda is from some specific manufacturers, and it is unfair. The process of extracting fish oil depends on different manufacturing plants using different technologies, including traditional wet pressing, supercritical extraction, molecular distillation and natural enzyme extraction. Each making process has its own patents and characteristics. Regardless of the technology, the focus is on the quality of the extracted fish oil. Just like fishing, fishing with a cast net or fishing with a fishing rod cannot define the deliciousness of the fish. Whether it is delicious or not is related to the fish itself, not by the method of fishing.  The effectiveness of fish oil supplements depends on three key points : freshness, concentration of EPA and DHA, and content per serving. To be fair, no matter what kind of extraction method, as long as the quality and indicators of the extracted fish oil can meet the international standards and specifications; it is a good fish oil supplement. Rumor 7 : It is dangerous for pregnant women to consume EPA-containing fish oil, but algae oil is safe!? Answer : Wrong. In fact, none of the studying mentions that taking EPA can put pregnant women at risk and there is no death has ever occurred. Instead, some studies have pointed out that a small amount of EPA has positive benefits for pregnant women. In fact, pregnant women can take EPA, but it is recommended to consume only a small amount of EPA. As a result, the fish oil with a high EPA content is not suitable under the circumstances. The omega-3 supplementation for pregnant women is generally recommended not to consume fresh seafood more than twice a week, because there may still be heavy metals or environmental pollutants. It is better for pregnant women to supplement with highly purified fish oil or algae oil supplementary source. It is also advised to consume at least 200 – 300 mg of DHA per day, because DHA is very important for the development of the fetus. As for the EPA part, it can be obtained from the diet or choose fish oil containing only a small amount of EPA. However, it is NOT recommended to supplement with the fish oil formulations with high concentrations of EPA. Rumor 8 : It is normal for fish oil to have a fishy smell, and it does not matter after consumption!? Answer : Wrong. In fact, the heavier the fish oil smell, the less fresh it represents. Just like if you eat fresh fish food or seafood, there should not be a strong fishy smell. The strong fishy smell normally means that the food has become corrupted. For fish oil supplements, the strong fishy smell also means that the fish oil has been oxidized and corrupted. The oxidized fish oil may cause nausea burps after taking. Researches have also found that oxidized fish oil with a strong fishy smell is harmful to the human body, which can cause many risks and side effects. To know if your fish oil is fresh, you can see whether the fish oil supplement has a freshness index test. The complete freshness index value includes the AV, PV and TOTOX. Or in an easy way, you can just puncture the fish oil capsule you have. If it appears a strong fishy or unpleasant smell, it means that your fish oil may have been oxidized and is not good for taking. The freshness of fish oil is also absolutely related to the efficacy. Rumor 9 : Edible linseed oil is the same as fish oil and has the same effect!? Answer : Wrong. Omega-3 essential fatty acids cannot be produced by the human body, so they are called "essential". Omega-3 essential fatty acids can be divided into two main types of sources : plant sources (linseed oil, walnuts, etc., containing ALA), or marine sources (fish oil, etc., containing EPA and DHA).
 The ALA of linseed oil can be synthesized into EPA and DHA in the human body. However, the rate of the human body converts ALA to EPA and DHA is slow and is affected by many factors. For example, the vegetable oils, fast food and baked foods may contain too much omega-6 in the diet, trans fatty acids, drinking, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies (such as vitamin B3, B6, zinc, magnesium, etc.). In addition, ALA is mainly used in the body as a source of energy, but EPA and DHA can directly improve and help our health.

 Deep-sea fish are the most direct source of EPA and DHA. According to researches, the human body's ability to convert ALA to EPA may only be 8%, while DHA is only 0.5%. Most people cannot even convert ALA to DHA. Flaxseed oil is a healthy oil, but it does not provide you with the benefits of EPA and DHA. Rumor 10 : The food in our daily diet can satisfy our demand for omega-3!? Answer : Wrong. In the United States, more than 95% of Americans cannot get enough omega-3 from their diet. Although Taiwan is surrounded by the sea and has a wealth of seafood food options, most people still do not eat fish twice a week. Especially under the busy modern life and westernized diet, it is even more difficult to achieve. Although most fish contain omega-3, DHA and EPA are mostly present in cold-water fatty fish, such as salmon, anchovies, or tuna. Other white or less fatty fish, such as cod or shellfish, contain less EPA and DHA. In addition, large fish species such as swordfish have a long life cycle in the ocean and contain more heavy metals or pollutants in their bodies. Therefore, they are not safe to eat, especially for pregnant women. How to get enough EPA and DHA? It is actually very simple. Choose TruOmega, it is fresh with high concentration content, and sourced from small deep-sea fish species. 1~2 capsules per day, you can easily meet the needs of your body for a day. The highly purified TruOmega is pure, safe and pollution-free; there is no need to worry about any possible environmental pollutants.  

魚油網路十大流言? 你知道幾個正解呢? 讓營養師教你破解網路謠言與行銷手法

    網路謠言一:魚油 EPA 與 DHA 應該是 3 : 2 才是「黃金比例」好魚油? 解答:錯。沒有甚麼黃金比例,那是行銷搞出來的噱頭。EPA 與 DHA 的 3 : 2 比例,主要是因為來自深海小型魚種,例如沙丁魚與鯷魚,其萃取出來的魚油中,每 1000 毫克的魚油內含的 EPA 與 DHA 大約含量是 180 毫克 (18%) 與 120 毫克 (12%),而這也是 3 : 2 比例的由來。 事實上,不同魚種萃取出的魚油其 EPA 與 DHA 比例多少會有所差異,例如鱈魚肝油的 EPA 與 DHA 比例大約是 9% 與 14%;而鮭魚中的比例大約是 EPA 9% 與 DHA 10%。而就 EPA 與 DHA 的功能來看,每個人的需求也不同,例如嬰幼兒、學齡兒童、孕婦與銀髮族等對於 DHA 的需求較大。而若是對於飲食大魚大肉,或是可能因為飲食不當而引起的身體其他狀況,這時候對於 EPA 的需求就比較大。因此並沒有所謂的 3 : 2 黃金比例,因為每個人的需求不同,就需要不同的魚油配方。所以有些廠商便宜行事,一款魚油賣百種人,這是不對的,例如兒童和孕婦就不適合食用太高 EPA 的魚油。 網路謠言二:魚油跟鈣不能一起吃,會有皂化反應,甚至引起拉肚子? 解答:錯。魚油跟鈣並不會產生皂化反應,這是錯誤的認知。 我們先來說明什麼是皂化反應。「皂化反應」的發生主要需要三個條件存在,包括: 油脂 強鹼水溶液 (例如氫氧化鈉等) 溫度至少要 70 度以上 皂化反應是一個放熱反應,加上是一個較慢的化學反應,因此需要在高溫下或是以物理方式不斷快速攪拌溶液等劇烈反應以促成反應的發生。 所以在了解皂化反應後,我們回來探討魚油和鈣的部分,基本上鈣質大多屬於中性到弱鹼性,所以與皂化反應所需要的強鹼是不符合的。如果鈣質是強鹼,那你補充鈣片的同時,大概口腔和胃早就已經灼傷了。 而在溫度部分,人體是恆溫的生物,體溫維持在 37.5 度 C 上下,即使發燒狀態,超過 40 度 C 就非常嚴重,要趕緊就診了,請問怎麼可能會達到皂化反應所需要的 70 度呢? 而在胃部消化蠕動部分,跟引起皂化反應所需的快速攪拌等劇烈反應差異甚大,很難構成皂化反應的條件,所以魚油和鈣一起食用,是安全無慮的,並不會引起皂化反應。 網路謠言三:魚油產品強調的 "三酸甘油酯型式" 是什麼?它會造成我的血脂過高!? 解答:錯。"三酸甘油酯型式 (TG)"代表魚油中的脂肪酸分子型式。而天然三酸甘油酯型式的魚油代表這些脂肪在消化過程中,與市面上的濃縮合成乙酯 (EE; ethyl ester) 型式魚油相比較,更容易被消化分解,並且增加 omega-3 脂肪酸在人體的吸收率以及利用率。 至於 ”是否會造成血脂 (三酸甘油酯) 過高的疑慮”,其時這裡指的是另一種型式的三酸甘油酯。這些血脂並非從飲食中的脂肪而來,而是由於食用了過多的碳水化合物,導致身體為了代謝,血液產生過高的胰島素,進而導致肝臟所合成出來。所以三酸甘油酯形式的魚油跟你的血脂是完全無關的! 網路謠言四:魚油滴在保麗龍上會導致保麗龍融化,是不是我食用的魚油含有有機溶劑,所以才會導致這狀況發生!? 解答:錯。這個議題其實是完全錯誤的認知,這項議題衛生福利部之前就公布解答闢謠過,關於衛生福利部的解釋引用如下:「市售某些魚油膠囊產品,如果將魚油滴在保麗龍上,發現有使保麗龍溶解現象,係因魚油中所含 EPA (二十碳五烯酸)、DHA (二十二碳六烯酸) 之「乙基酯」含量較高,而該成分結構極性與保麗龍類似,因此會與保麗龍產生互溶情形,此為正常現象。」而此種魚油的特性正是因為高濃縮的乙酯 (EE) 形式魚油才會導致此種狀況的發生,這也代表千萬別用保麗龍容器去盛裝濃縮魚油製品。 而天然三酸甘油酯形式的濃縮魚油,則不會有此種情形的產生。 網路謠言五:看廣告說磷蝦油的 EPA 與 DHA 人體利用率較高,因此食用磷蝦油比魚油好!? 解答:錯。在 2015 年發表於 Lipids in Health & Disease 期刊的隨機雙盲實驗中,共 66 位的受測者,分別針對三酸甘油酯型魚油 (TG) 與乙酯型魚油 (EE) 與磷蝦油 (Krill Oil)。 經過 4 週的連續補充後發現,在相同的食用劑量下,磷蝦油的效果與魚油相比,其生物利用率並沒有太大的差異。 此外,磷蝦是一種類似蝦子的甲殼類生物,在海洋食物鏈中佔有非常重要的角色,而考量到捕抓磷蝦對於生態鏈的重大衝擊,在美國西岸、挪威、與南極洲都已明確立法禁止捕抓。 而 TruOmega 的高濃縮魚油,來自小型魚種,包括沙丁魚與鯷魚,數量充足,並且生活週期短,繁殖速度快,不僅較不容易累積環境汙染物,對於永續環境而言,是相當適合的魚油來源。 網路謠言六:看網路上說超臨界萃取技術萃取出來的才是好魚油!? 解答:錯。這是特定廠商的宣傳手法,並不公正。萃取魚油的製程依據不同的製造廠使用不同的技術,包括傳統的濕式壓榨萃取 (wet pressing)、超臨界萃取、到分子蒸餾法及天然酵素萃取。各有專利與特色,無論甚麼技術,重點是萃取出來的魚油品質是否精純。就如同釣魚,用撒網釣魚和使用釣竿釣魚,並不會因為哪一種釣法釣起來的魚特別好吃,因為好不好吃跟魚本身相關,和捕魚的方法則沒有太大的差別。 魚油食用後的成效,取決於三大重點:新鮮度、EPA 與 DHA 濃度、以及食用含量。公正而言,無論哪一種萃取方式,只要萃取後的魚油品質與指標能符合國際標準規範,都是好的魚油。 網路謠言七:孕婦食用含 EPA 的魚油很危險,藻油才安全!? 解答:錯。事實上,沒有任何一篇文獻提到孕婦食用 EPA 後會有危險或是曾發生過任何的死亡案例。反而有研究指出,少量的 EPA 對於孕婦是具有正面的助益。孕婦可以食用 EPA,但建議食用少量 EPA,並不適合一般高 EPA 比例的魚油。 孕婦在 omega-3 的補充上,一般建議一週食用生鮮的海鮮類不要超過兩次,因為還是有可能會有重金屬或環境汙染物的殘留,而孕婦補充經過高度純化的魚油或藻油是較佳的補充來源。一般在孕婦的 omega-3 補充上,建議每日最少要食用 200 ~ 300 毫克的 DHA,因為 DHA 對於寶寶的發育相當重要,而 EPA 部分,可以藉由飲食中獲取,或選擇含少量 EPA 的魚油,但不建議食用高濃度 EPA 的魚油配方。 網路謠言八:魚油具有魚腥味是正常的,食用後沒有關係!? 解答:錯。事實上,魚油的腥味越重,代表越不新鮮。就像你食用新鮮的魚類食物或海產,並不會有濃厚的魚腥味,有濃厚的魚腥味,代表食物已經腐敗了。在魚油膠囊補充品中,濃厚的腥味,同樣代表魚油已經氧化腐敗,氧化的魚油不僅食用後,可能會導致反胃的打嗝 (burps) 反應,研究更發現帶有濃厚魚腥味的氧化魚油對於人體更有嚴重的負面傷害,會導致許多的風險與副作用。 魚油是否新鮮,可以看魚油本身是否有做新鮮度指標的檢驗,完整的新鮮度指標數值包含 AV、PV 與 TOTOX 指標。或是更簡單的方式,您可以刺破您食用的魚油膠囊,若帶有濃厚的魚腥味或腥臭味,代表你的魚油可能已經氧化,並不適合食用了。魚油的新鮮與否,跟食用後的成效也帶有絕對的相關性。 網路謠言九:食用亞麻籽油和魚油相同,具有一樣好的功效!? 解答:錯。Omega-3 必需脂肪酸人體無法自行製造,因此才被稱為「必需」。Omega-3 必需脂肪酸可分為兩大類來源:植物來源 (亞麻籽油、胡桃等,含有 ALA),或海生類來源 (魚油等,含有 EPA 與 DHA)。
 亞麻籽油的 ALA 在人體內可以被合成為 EPA 與 DHA。但是人體將 ALA 轉換為 EPA 與 DHA 的速率緩慢,並且受到許多因素影響,例如:飲食中的中式熱炒、速食與烘培食品中的植物油脂可能含有過多的 omega-6、反式脂肪酸、飲酒、與維生素和礦物質缺乏 (維生素 B3、B6、鋅、鎂等)。此外,ALA 在體內主要被利用來作為產生能量來源,但 EPA 與 DHA 則是直接對於健康有直接的改善與幫助。

 深海的魚類是 EPA 與 DHA 最直接的來源。根據研究指出,人體將 ALA 轉換為 EPA 的能力可能只有 8%,而 DHA 只有 0.5%,多數人甚至無法將 ALA 轉換為 DHA。亞麻籽油是健康的油脂,但並無法提供給你 EPA 與 DHA 的好處。 網路謠言十:日常飲食中的食物就可以滿足我們對於 Omega-3 的需求了!? 解答:錯。在美國,有超過 95% 以上的美國人無法經由飲食中獲得足夠的 omega-3。台灣雖然是四面環海,具有豐富的海鮮食物選擇,但大多數人,一週仍然沒有食用兩次的魚類食物,特別在忙碌生活與西化的飲食型態下,更難達成。 雖然大部分的魚類都含有 omega-3,但在深海中富含油脂的冷水魚含有最豐富的 EPA 與 DHA,例如鮭魚、鯷魚、或鮪魚等。其他白色或油脂較少的魚類,例如鱈魚或貝類,含有的 EPA 與 DHA 就較少。此外,大型魚種例如旗魚等,由於在海中生活週期長,其體內所含有的重金屬或汙染物也較多,因此食用上並不安全,特別是孕婦更應該注意。 至於該如何攝取足夠的 EPA 與 DHA 呢? 實際上非常簡單,選擇具有頂級新鮮度與高濃縮含量的 TruOmega,來自深海小型魚種,每日 1 ~ 2 顆膠囊,就可以滿足人體一天的需求,而經過高度純化的 TruOmega,純淨無汙染,無需擔心生鮮魚類中可能的環境汙染物危害。