The Flavoring of Infant Dietary Supplements Will Influence His/Her Future Food Preferences And Eating Habits

    In many dietary supplements for infants and children today, many flavoring agents are often added to increase the flavor, such as grapes and strawberries flavors, so as to increase the willingness of the infants or children to eat. Generally, infants and young children’s willingness to take supplements has increased, which makes those novice parents’ life easier. However, studies have found that the flavor of food will greatly affect the future food preferences and eating habits of the infants and young children. In the diet of infants and young children, from breastfeeding to the consumption of dairy products or infant formula, and non-staple foods, the flavor of the chosen foods by these infants and young children would actually influence their future food preferences. Besides, these choices could potentially lead to deviations in diet, which may increase the risk of chronic diseases. Therefore, in terms of formula design, infant dietary supplements should specially avoid any food additives that do not come from the original taste of natural food, especially flavoring agents such as artificial fruit flavors. Let's look at a few interesting studies. In 2007, a survey regarding breast milk on the future eating habits of infants and young children found that compared with babies fed formula milk, the surveys aims at acceptance, eating frequency, and eating response found that breast-fed babies have higher acceptance of peaches. This is because the breastfeeding mothers usually have a variety of different fruits in their diet, the flavor of these fruits indirectly affects the taste of breast milk. After babies are fed with the breast milk, their acceptance of fruits will be higher in the future. This result also echoes a study in 2003 that breastfeeding babies are less picky on foods when they grow up, and are more receptive and willing to try unfamiliar foods. The more significant meaning behind this is that these babies will increase their willingness and consumption of vegetables and fruits in their later childhood growth stages. The choice of diet is equally important for breastfeeding mothers. In another study, infants were given vanilla-flavored formula milk. These infants consumed more formula milk and had extra power to suck. If researchers let nursing mothers consume vanilla-flavored milk powder, these babies will also notice the vanilla flavor in breast milk and show the same reaction when they suck breast milk. These reactions will affect the acceptance and choice of food and flavor after the baby grows up. Therefore, even breastfeeding mothers must pay great attention to the content of their meals, because the baby will feel the flavor of breast milk. In 2004, an US survey focused on infant and young children’s eating patterns warned that infants and young children’s acceptance regarding vegetables is lower than that of fruits, and 1/4 of children do not even eat a serving of vegetables a day. What is even more concerning is that these children prefer to eat fatty foods or desserts and drinks Instead. And such eating habits are affected from the beginning stage of their life, even extend all the way to grown-ups, and these kinds of food preferences may lead to more chronic disease risks in the future. By another study in 2002, in which infants and young children were fed different formula milk (including cow milk, soy milk, and decomposed protein) and the study had continued to track their dietary preferences until they grew up to 4-5 years old. The result indicated that different formulas influenced their testing subjects’ future choice of food flavors. For example, compared infants fed with protein substitute formulas with infant fed with milk formulas, the protein-fed infants were more likely to accept more sour flavored juices when they grow up. For the babies fed with formula milk derived from soy, they prefer the apple juice with a bitter taste. The follow-up tracking also found that the babies who were fed hydrolyzed protein or soy formula had significantly higher acceptance of broccoli and other vegetables during childhood. On the contrary, babies who were fed cow's milk formula had a lower acceptance of cauliflower when they grow up. These eating habits kept affecting their future eating choices when they grew into adulthood. This is not just for eating habits and food selection. There are many additives in food. In addition to artificial flavors and other flavoring agents, there are also many different additives such as artificial colors. These additives are more likely to bring negative health effects, including possible allergies, asthma, and neurological development damage, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), abdominal pain or diarrhea, etc. In another animal study published in 2018, it discovered that these spices or flavoring agents were cytotoxic or genotoxic in some animal studies, including subsequent physiological reactions such as significantly reducing the production of red blood cells. 《  Conclusion  》 Citing these documents includes additives that affect breast milk flavor from breastfeeding mothers’ dietary choices, as well as formula milk to fruit flavors in foods. These studies all point to a result. The dietary choices of infants and young children will affect their future growth in the consumption of fruits and vegetables and their dietary preferences, and which will play a key role in their health in the future. For infants and children, what should we pay attention regarding their diet? 1. In dietary supplements for infants and young children, avoid to choose products that contain flavoring agents such as fruit flavors. 2. Try to avoid products containing artificial additives, artificial flavors and colorings, etc., so that infants and young children get used to the original flavor of the food. Regardless of whether the label indicates natural flavors or artificial flavors, it may affect the acceptance of vegetables and eating habits in the future. 3. Nursing mothers should properly balance the food they eat, use natural ingredients as the main ingredient, and avoid eating foods with additives or artificial flavors. 4. For non-staple foods for infants and young children, pick the foods contain natural ingredients with original flavor. After the baby is born, the parents want to give the baby more complete nutritional supplements for the sake of baby's health. But when you give your baby dietary supplements, when he/she inadvertently eats harmful fruit flavors or other flavorings, which will affect his/her future growth and behavior. It’s like to put the cart before the horse. The baby grows only once, we should definitely be more careful about food choices.    
2021-05-04

嬰幼兒營養品中的風味劑將會影響寶寶未來對於食物的選擇與飲食習慣

    在現今的許多嬰幼兒或兒童營養保健品中,常常會添加許多的調味劑來增加風味,例如葡萄、草莓等水果風味,以藉此增加嬰幼兒或兒童的食用意願。通常嬰幼兒的食用意願增加,也讓新手父母餵食的較為輕鬆。但在研究上發現,對於食物的風味,將會大大影響到嬰幼兒未來長大後對於食物的選擇以及飲食的習慣。 在嬰幼兒的飲食上,從哺乳開始到食用乳製品或嬰兒配方奶、以及副食品等,其實這些嬰幼兒食用的食物上的風味,會影響到其長大後對於食物的選擇,而這些選擇會導致飲食上的偏差,進而可能增加慢性病的風險。所以在配方設計上,嬰幼兒營養補充品特別應該避免接觸任何並非來自天然食物原本味道的食物添加劑,特別是人工水果風味等調味劑。 我們來看幾項有趣的研究。在 2007 年一項針對母乳對於嬰幼兒未來的飲食習慣調查發現,餵食母乳的寶寶跟餵食配方奶的寶寶相比,從接受度、食用頻率、食用反應等調查發現,餵食母乳的寶寶其對於桃子的接受度高於餵食配方奶的寶寶。這是因為當哺乳媽媽平時飲食中食用各種不同的水果,而這些水果風味間接影響到母乳的味道,而當母乳寶寶食用後,未來對於水果的接受度就更高。而這個結果也呼應了 2003 年的一項研究,餵食母乳的寶寶,長大後較不挑食,並且對於陌生的食物的接受度與嘗試意願都更高。而這更重要的意義是,在這些寶寶在之後的兒童生長階段,其對於蔬菜與水果的食用意願與食用量也增加。 而飲食的挑選對於哺乳媽媽而言也是同等重要,在另一篇研究中,給予嬰兒食用針對添加香草風味的配方奶,這些嬰兒對於配方奶的食用量都更多,而且吸吮的更大力。若研究人員改為讓哺乳媽媽食用含香草味道的奶粉,而這些寶寶,在吸食母乳時,同樣會感受到母乳中香草的風味而呈現出同樣的反應。而這些反應後續在嬰兒成長後將影響其對於食物與風味的接受度和選擇。所以即使是哺乳的媽媽,也必須極為注意其食用的餐食內容,因為寶寶會感受到母乳中的風味。 美國針對嬰幼兒的飲食模式調查,在 2004 年就提出警告,嬰幼兒對於蔬菜的接受度比水果更低,而1/4的兒童甚至一天沒有食用到一份蔬菜,更令人擔憂的是,這些兒童反而喜愛食用富含脂肪的食物或是甜點與飲料。而這樣的飲食習慣,就是從嬰幼兒開始受到的影響,甚至一路到長大成人,其對於食物的選擇可能導致未來更多的慢性疾病風險。 在另一篇 2002 年的研究指出,針對嬰幼兒餵食不同的配方奶 (包含牛乳、豆奶、與水解蛋白) 並持續追蹤其成長到4-5歲時的飲食偏好。結果發現不同的配方奶會影響到他們未來對於食物風味的選擇,例如餵食蛋白水解配方的嬰兒,跟餵食牛奶配方的嬰兒相比,餵食水解蛋白的嬰兒長大後比較能接受較酸風味的果汁;而餵食大豆來源的配方奶,比較偏好帶點苦味的蘋果汁。而後續追蹤發現,這些餵食水解蛋白或是大豆配方奶的嬰兒,在兒童時期對於花椰菜等蔬菜的接受顯著高出許多。餵食牛乳配方的嬰兒長大後則對於花椰菜的接受度較低。而這些飲食習慣,在未來成長為大人後,也將影響其未來的飲食選擇。 而不只是對於飲食習慣與食物的挑選,食品的添加物非常多,除了人工香料等調味劑,還有人工色素等許多不同的添加物,這些添加物更容易帶來健康上負面的影響,包括可能導致過敏、氣喘、以及神經上的發展損害,例如注意力不集中症候群 (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD))、和腹部疼痛或腹瀉等。在另一篇 2018 年發表的動物研究中發現,這些香料或調味劑,在動物研究中都呈現細胞毒性 (cytotoxic) 或基因毒性 (genotoxic),包括後續顯著降低紅血球的生成等生理反應。 《 結論 》 引用這些文獻,包含從哺乳媽媽的飲食選擇進而影響到母乳風味、以及配方奶到食品中水果風味等的添加物。這些研究都指向一個結果,嬰幼兒的飲食選擇,會影響到其未來成長後對於蔬果的食用及飲食的偏好,而這些飲食偏好將對於未來長大後其健康扮演關鍵的角色。 所以對於嬰幼兒與兒童,飲食該如何注意呢? 1. 嬰幼兒的營養補充品中,避免選擇含水果風味等調味劑的產品 2. 盡量避免含有人工添加物、人工香料、色素等製品,讓嬰幼兒習慣原本食物的風味。無論標籤上註明是天然香料 (natural flavors) 或人工香料(artificial flavors),都可能會影響未來成長後其對於蔬菜等的接受度與飲食習慣 3. 哺乳媽媽對於本身食用的食物,應盡可能均衡,以天然食材為主,並避免食用含添加物或人工風味的食物 4. 對於嬰幼兒的副食品,以原味的天然食材為主 當寶寶出生後,父母親為了寶寶的健康,而給予寶寶更完整的營養補充品。但給寶寶食用營養補充品時,卻不經意反而吃下有害的水果香料等調味劑而影響到其未來的生長與行為,這反而是本末倒置了,不是嗎? 寶寶的生長只有一次,我們是不是應該更小心食物的選擇呢!    
2021-05-03

Can Calcium And Iron Supplements Be Taken Together? Let The Nutritionist Tell You The Truth.

    Can calcium and iron supplements be taken together? On the Internet, rumor has it that taking calcium and iron together will interfere with iron absorption, and the two will have a competitive effect. Therefore, they should not be taken at the same time. It would be better to have at least 2 hours apart when supplementing the two. Many professionals or institutions also claim that iron cannot be consumed with calcium. Is it true? Is it completely ineffective to take calcium while supplementing iron? Let's take a look at the scientific part of the evidence. Many short-term studies have pointed out that calcium will affect the absorption of iron, but those studies mainly focus on the results of simultaneous consumption of a single taken. In fact, according to the research under the state of long-term consumption, in which the investigation aimed on different dietary composition and other factors, the result showed that calcium supplements does not have a significant effect on the absorption rate of iron supplements. The accuracy of these studies indicated that calcium and iron will interfere with each other's absorption has actually been questioned by many. The magnitude of the influence of the absorption rate seems to vary according to different research designs, including the time point of measuring the absorption rate and the method of measuring the absorption rate. In addition, there were some studies investigated whether dairy foods affect iron absorption. In a randomized crossover study of a four-day diet, in which it focused on drinking a glass of milk at the same time in each meal of three meals, or eating calcium-fortified foods with the same calcium content. The result discovered that the doing did not affect the absorption of non-heme iron. In another diet study based on plant and vegetables, the additional consumption of milk or yogurt at the same time didn’t affect the bioavailability of iron. In a 2010 study, it was found that the absorption rate of calcium and iron may have a slight impact on the short-term. However, as a matter of fact, the human colonic mucosal cells have a so-called rebound effect in their gene expression; mucosal cells will adapt and further increase the absorption rate of iron. Thus, the long-term consumption will not cause insufficient iron absorption or even deficiency. To conclude, can we take calcium and iron supplements at the same time? The answer is “yes” according to the results of many studies. No need to worry at all. 《 References 》 1. Dawson-Hughes B et al. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44(1):83-8. 2. Hallberg L et al. Calcium: effect of different amounts of nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53(1):112-9. 3. Benkhedda K et al. Effect of calcium on iron absorption in women with marginal iron status. Br J Nutr 2010;103(5):742-8. 4. Minihane AM and Fairweather-Tait SJ. Effect of calcium supplementation on daily nonheme-iron absorption and long-term iron status. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(1):96-102. 5. Cook JD et al. Assessment of the role of nonheme-iron availability on iron balance. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(4):717-22. 6. Reddy MB and Cook JD. Effect of calcium intake on non-heme iron absorption from a complete diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(6):1820-5. 7. Lönnerdal B. Calcium and iron absorption–mechanisms and public health relevance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2010;80(4-5):293-9. 8. Grinder-Pedersen L et al. Calcium from milk or calcium-fortified foods does not inhibit nonheme-iron absorption from a whole diet consumed over a 4-d period. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(2):404-9. 9. Rosado JL et al. The addition of milk or yogurt to a plant-based diet increases zinc bioavailability but does not affect iron bioavailability in women. J Nutr 2005;135(3):465-8.  
2021-04-09

What Is Eggshell Membrane? How Is The Efficacy of Eggshell Membrane Compared With UC2?

    What Is Eggshell Membrane? Eggshell membrane is an emerging raw material used in dietary supplements in recent years. Eggshells were use to be considered as leftovers after eating. The eggshell consists of five layers. From the inside to the outside of the eggshell, there are: inner shell membrane, outer shell membrane, mammillary, spongy matrix and cuticale. However, scientists have discovered in recent years that eggshell membrane is rich in nutrients and it has verified by scientific breakthroughs in many fields. According to statistics, from 2011 to 2013, there were more than 30 research publications each year, and over the past few years it has been widely used in various healthcare fields. The eggshell membrane is mainly composed of protein (80-85%), of which about 10% is collagen (type I, V, X), and 70-75% is other proteins and glycoproteins. There are 500 kinds of protein in eggshell and eggshell membrane. Even the edible protein we often say is only 148 kinds, and there are only 316 kinds in egg yolk. In comparison, the protein contained in eggshell membrane is the essence of the whole egg. In addition, the eggshell membrane contains many unique nutrients, including branched chain amino acids, essential amino acids, keratin, lysozyme, ovotransferrin, ovalbumin, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and glucosamine. The Two Major Brands of Eggshell Membrane At present, there are two main raw material suppliers for eggshell membranes, one is from the United States and the other is OVOMET® from Eggnovo in Europe. The raw materials of eggshell membranes in the United States need to be consumed up to 500 mg per day whereas OVOMET® only needs 300 mg daily to achieve the same results. Because its purity is nearly twice as high, the relative consumption is lower, it’s more convenient. Both eggshell membrane brands have published clinical studies and supportive effects. However, OVOMET® not only has more than two patents in Spain, but also has the US GRAS certification, as well as the Canadian FDA efficacy support. In terms of clinical evidence, unlike glucosamine, which takes several weeks to months to see the effects, OVOMET® eggshell membrane extract takes only 3-5 days to make the test subjects feel the difference in the body.   The Clinical Comparison Between Eggshell Membrane and UCⅡ® / UC2, Which One Has The Better Effect? The health benefits of UCⅡ® / UC2 in mobility are indisputable. Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of UCⅡ® / UC2, and the consumption is very small. Only 40 mg per day is required for the original clinical consumption. As for eggshell membrane, there are also a lot of clinical proofs. What is the difference between the two? The body sensitivity of UCⅡ® / UC2 after consumption is generally recommended to take 90 days, while the body sensitivity of OVOMET® is recommended to be 30 days. If we use WOMAC Index score as reference, OVOMET® is more superior in somatosensory score.   It can be seen from the comparison table that after ten days of consumption, OVOMET® eggshell membranes have begun to have significant susceptibility. After 30 days, the score of OVOMET® has exceeded UCⅡ® / UC2 by approximately 1.7 times. After 60 days, compared with its WOMAC scores, the effect of OVOMET® eggshell membranes is about twice that of UCⅡ®. Although the WOMAC index score of OVOMET® is better than that of UCⅡ® / UC2 when compared with individual ingredients, compared with the ingredients and the mechanism of action, in fact, the effective ingredients contained in each are different, and the mechanism of action in the human body is also different. UCⅡ ® / UC2 mainly contains non-denatured type 2 collagen, while OVOMET® contains hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, chondroitin, and lysozyme in addition to type 1, 5, and 10 collage. Actually, in terms of dietary supplements, the two ingredients can complement each other and bring more satisfactory results. In addition, OVOMET® is mainly derived from eggshell membranes, and UCⅡ® is mainly derived from chicken cartilages. Unlike glucosamine or chondroitin from shrimp and crab sources, both of them can prevent people from potentially allergic to seafood; it is safer to eat. 《 References 》 1. Lugo et al. Nutrition Journal (2016)15:14. 2. Garcia-Tabar et al. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2016 (26) S1-S15. 3. Garcia-Tabar et al. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte 2015; 32(5):314-334. 4. Blasco JMI et al. Int. J. Clin. Rheumatol. (2016) 11(5), 077-081. 5. Ruff et al. Clinical Rheumatology August 209; 28 (8):907-914. 6. Walbroel et al. The nature network 2011. 7. Schauss et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 201;60(16): 4096-4101.  
2021-04-08

How To Choose Bilberry? Let The Nutritionist Tell You The Tricks.

    Based on a study published in Japan in 2013, which aimed at the inspection and evaluation of 20 types of wild bilberry products on the market. It found that the consumption on the label was 66 times different, and the amount marked on the packaging of 6 of them is even lower than the replenishment amount recommended by the Japanese official. Furthermore, there were even products with bilberry content lower than 20% of the declared content on the label. According to Japan's (Japan Health Food & Nutrition Food Association), the recommended daily intake of anthocyanins is 29 mg; converted, if the concentration of bilberry extract in a dietary supplement is 36%, it needs to contain at least 80 mg. If it is a lower 25% concentration of bilberry extract, you need to consume more than 116 mg. If this content is not reached the estimations, the effect may not be significant after consumption. The content and stability of anthocyanins in bilberry are greatly affected by different manufacturing processes. It is generally recommended that bilberry be manufactured at extremely low temperatures to maintain the stability and the activity of anthocyanins. This is the reason that the anthocyanins of some products did not meet the label of the packaging in that Japanese study. The differences between different raw material brands are great. The Unique Anthocyanins In Bilberries Bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) belongs to the Ericaceae family, and there are more than 450 species belonging to the genus Vaccinium. Therefore, the variety of the bilberry is very important. Generally, the anthocyanosides contained in bilberry are approximately 25% after standardized extraction, and the anthocyanidin contained in 100 grams of bilberry fruits is about 300-700 mg. The difference between this range mainly depends on the bilberries from different regions. MirtoSelect® is the most trusted brand of bilberry in the European and American supplemental market. MirtoSelect® has a unique HPLC sequence and has a specific fingerprint. In addition, MirtoSelect® has the highest concentration, at least over 36% (36 -39%) of anthocyanins. Due to this reason, MirtoSelect® has excellent effects and benefits after consumption. MirtoSelect® is the only top-grade bilberry that has been verified in animal and human trials. It is also the only bilberry extract supported by human date in the field of vision. Bilberry vs Blueberry, What Is The Differences? Bilberry has always been easily confused with blueberry. Although the fruit looks similar, it is completely different. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is mainly grown in Central and Northern Europe. Bilberries and blueberries have a different phytochemical profile and anthocyanins content of bilberry fresh fruits is almost 4 times higher in bilberries than in blueberries. Besides, the fruit of bilberry is smaller than blueberry. In addition, unlike blueberries, whose fruits are not produced in clusters, they are usually single or occasionally two when they grow. Moreover, bilberries pulp is blue/dark purple, that of blueberries is greenish. Bilberries are also harder and less juicy. Bilberry cannot be cultivated; it can only be obtained from wild sources. It is an extremely precious variety. In addition, the processing and extraction process of bilberry must be very careful and controlled at extremely low temperatures. If it is not processed in a frozen environment, the tissue damage will trigger the deglycosidation of anthocyanins, with detrimental effects on their chemical stability. MirtoSelect® undergoes a rigorous production process. Once harvested, the freshly collected berries are immediately frozen in ventilated tunnels at -35°C. The smaller fruits, stones, leaves and other impurities are strictly screened and removed by the machine, and next go through the color selecting process. The best quality of bilberries are then packaged and stored. Who Is Not Suitable For Eating Bilberry? Foreign professional studyings indicated that anthocyanosides have the effect of preventing platelet coagulation. The bilberry extract may interfere with anticoagulant drugs (such as Warfarin). Therefore, people who take anticoagulant drugs are not suitable for taking bilberry. It’s better to consult a physician or medical professional before taking. In addition, pregnant or breastfeeding women are generally not recommended to take the ingredient of bilberry as well. The Features of MirtoSelect® Bilberry Extract : 1. Nowadays, MirtoSelect® is the most widely trusted and researched bilberry extract brand. It is the only top grade bilberry that has been verified in animal and human trials. 2. In the specific field of vision, it is the only top bilberry brand that has undergone human clinical trials. 3. It contains the highest concentration on the market, containing more than 36% (36-39%) of anthocyanins. 4. MirtoSelect® is characterized by a very specific and consistent HPLC profile that represents the “fingerprint” of the extract. It is obtained from precious wild sources. 5. Extracted throught extremely low temperature (-35°C), the anthocyanin content is completely retained.  
2021-04-08

蛋殼膜是甚麼? 效果跟 UC2 相比呢? 讓營養師教你敏捷行動力的關鍵成分怎麼吃才有效

    蛋殼膜是甚麼? 蛋殼膜 (eggshell membrane) 是這幾年新興的保健食品原料,蛋殼以往都被認為是食用後剩餘的餘料。蛋殼係由五層所組成,自蛋殼之內側向外側有:內殼膜 (inner shell membrane)、外殼膜 (outer shell membrane)、乳頭層 (mammillary)、海綿層 (spongy matrix) 及角質層 (cuticale)。但科學家這幾年發現,蛋殼膜 (eggshell membrane) 富藏豐富的營養素,並且在許多領域已經獲得科學上的突破性驗證。根據統計,從 2011 年到 2013 年,每一年就有超過 30 篇以上的研究發表,這幾年更是大幅被應用在各項保健領域。 蛋殼膜的組成主要為蛋白質 (80-85%),而其中大約 10% 是膠原蛋白 (typeⅠ、Ⅴ、Ⅹ),70-75% 是其他蛋白質與醣蛋白。而在蛋殼與蛋殼膜的蛋白質加總有 500 種,即使是我們常說的食用蛋白也只有 148 種,而蛋黃內也只有 316 種,相比較下,蛋殼膜所含有的蛋白質才是整個蛋的精華成分。此外,蛋殼膜上更含有許多獨特的營養素,包含支鏈胺基酸、必需胺基酸、角蛋白、溶菌酶 (lysozyme)、卵轉鐵蛋白 (ovotransferrin)、卵清蛋白 (ovalbumin)、玻尿酸 (hyaluronic acid)、硫酸軟骨素 (chondroitin sulfate) 與葡萄糖胺 (glucosamine)。 蛋殼膜主要品牌選擇 目前蛋殼膜兩大主力原料商,一家來自美國,另一家就是來自歐洲 Eggnovo 的 OVOMET®。美國的蛋殼膜原料,在食用上需要每日食用到 500 毫克;而 OVOMET® 的蛋殼膜每日只需要 300 毫克即可達到成效,因為其純度高出近一倍,所以相對食用量更少,更為方便。兩家蛋殼膜都有臨床研究發表支持成效,而 OVOMET® 不僅在西班牙擁有兩項以上專利,更擁有美國 GRAS 認證 (安全無副作用),以及加拿大 FDA 功效佐證,而在臨床實證上,有別於以往葡萄糖胺等需要食用到數週到數月才有感受性,OVOMET® 萃取物只需 3-5 天就讓受測者普遍有感。   蛋殼膜與 UCⅡ® / UC2 的臨床比較,誰效果比較好? UCⅡ® / UC2 在行動力上面的保健功效,不容置疑,有許多的研究證實了 UCⅡ® / UC2 的功效,並且食用量極少,在原廠的臨床食用量上每日只需要 40 毫克。而在蛋殼膜上,也同樣經歷的大量的臨床證據,但這兩款的差異呢? UCⅡ® / UC2 的食用後體感度一般建議需要 90 天,而 OVOMET® 的體感度建議是 30 天。若同樣使用一般在評估上的指標 WOMAC 評分來看,OVOMET® 則是在體感分數上更為勝出。   在比較表上可以看到在食用十天後,OVOMET® 蛋殼膜已經開始有顯著的感受性,而在 30 天後,OVOMET® 的分數已經勝過 UCⅡ® / UC2 大約 1.7 倍,而在 60 天後,其 WOMAC 分數比較,OVOMET® 蛋殼膜的食用成效已經約是 UCⅡ® 的 2 倍。 雖然用單獨成分去比較,OVOMET® 的 WOMAC 指標評分勝過 UCⅡ® / UC2,但由成分以及在作用的機制去比照,其實各自所含的有效性成分不同,在人體的作用機制也有差異,UCⅡ® / UC2 主要含非變性第二型膠原蛋白,而OVOMET®除了第一、五、十型膠原外,還含有玻尿酸、葡萄糖胺、軟骨素與溶菌酶等成分,所以在食用上,其實兩者能夠搭配互補,更能夠帶來滿意的成效。 除此之外,OVOMET®主要來自蛋殼膜,UCⅡ® 主要來自雞軟骨,不像葡萄糖胺或軟骨素來自蝦蟹來源,可以避免許多對於海鮮有潛在性過敏的族群,食用後更為安全。 《 文獻來源 》 1. Lugo et al. Nutrition Journal (2016)15:14. 2. Garcia-Tabar et al. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2016 (26) S1-S15. 3. Garcia-Tabar et al. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte 2015; 32(5):314-334. 4. Blasco JMI et al. Int. J. Clin. Rheumatol. (2016) 11(5), 077-081. 5. Ruff et al. Clinical Rheumatology August 209; 28 (8):907-914. 6. Walbroel et al. The nature network 2011. 7. Schauss et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 201;60(16): 4096-4101.  
2021-04-08

山桑子怎麼挑? 讓營養師來教你怎麼選最頂級的山桑子

    在 2013 年日本所發表的一篇研究表示,針對市面上 20 款的山桑子產品進行檢驗評估,發覺標籤上的食用量差了 66 倍,而其中有 6 款其外盒標示的量甚至低於日本官方建議的補充量。而經過檢驗後,甚至有產品的山桑子含量低於標籤宣稱含量的 20%。而根據日本 (Japan Health Food & Nutrition Food Association) 訂定的每日建議花青素 (anthocyanins) 攝取量為 29 毫克;換算下來,若保健品的山桑子萃取物為 36% 濃度,則需含有 80 毫克以上,若為較低 25% 濃度的山桑子萃取物,則需食用 116 毫克以上。若沒有達到這個含量,可能食用後效果並不顯著。 山桑子中的花青素含量以及穩定性,則因為不同製程而有大幅的影響,一般建議山桑子要在極低溫下製造,才能保有花青素的穩定性與活性,這也是為什麼在日本的研究中,有些產品的花青素不符合外包裝標示,就是因為不同的原料品牌差異甚大。 山桑子中的獨特花青素 山桑子 (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) 屬於越橘類的果實,而越橘類共有 450 多種,因此在挑選上,山桑子的品種就非常重要。一般山桑子所含的花青素 (anthocyanosides) 經過標準化萃取後大約為 25%,而每 100 公克的山桑子果實中所含有的花青素 (anthocyanidin) 大約為 300-700 毫克,這範圍差異主要取決於不同地區山桑子的差異性。 MirtoSelect® 山桑子是歐美保健市場中最被信賴的山桑子品牌,MirtoSelect® 山桑子經過獨特的 HPLC 定序,擁有特定的指紋圖譜,此外,MirtoSelect® 山桑子擁有最高濃,至少超過 36% (36-39%) 的花青素 (anthocyanins),正因為如此,也讓 MirtoSelect® 食用後擁有絕佳的功效,MirtoSelect® 是唯一在動物於人體實驗都經過驗證的頂級山桑子,也是在特定領域唯一擁有人體臨床試驗成效的頂級山桑子萃取物。 山桑子 VS 藍莓,傻傻分不清楚? 山桑子一直很容易和藍莓混淆,雖然果實外觀近似,但卻全然不同。山桑子 (Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)) 主要生長在中歐與北歐。山桑子和藍莓所含有的植化素也全然不同,山桑子所含的有效成分 – 花青素 (anthocyanins) 是藍莓的四倍。山桑子的果實較藍莓小顆,不像藍莓為成串,通常都是生長時都是單顆或偶爾為兩顆。果肉顏色部分,山桑子果肉是藍色/深紫色,藍莓呈綠色。山桑子果實更堅硬,果實水分也較少。 山桑子本身難以人工栽種,只有野生採取的來源,因此極為珍貴。此外,山桑子的加工萃取過程,需要非常小心並控制在極低溫,一旦因為碰撞或加工導致組織開始受損,花青素就會開始去醣基化 (deglycosidation),導致穩定性受損或活性降低。MirtoSelect® 的山桑子,經過嚴格的生產製程,一旦採收便立刻冷凍至零下 35 度,並經由機器嚴格篩選剃除較小顆的果實、石頭、葉子等雜質,之後並經由選色過程挑選品質最佳的山桑子進行加工或儲存的過程。 誰不適合吃山桑子? 在國外的專業文獻提到花青素 (anthocyanosides) 具有預防血小板凝結的效果,所以山桑子萃取物有可能會與抗凝血藥物 (例如 Warfarin) 產生干擾作用,因此有服用抗凝血藥物的人,並不適合食用山桑子,或食用前請先諮詢醫師或醫藥專業人士。此外,孕婦或哺乳婦女一般也不建議食用山桑子的成分。 頂級 MirtoSelect® 山桑子萃取物特色 : 1. 現今最被廣泛信賴與研究的山桑子品牌,經過完整動物和人體臨床試驗確認成效 2. 在特定晶潤領域,是唯一經過人體臨床試驗的頂級山桑子品牌 3. 市面上最高濃度含量,含有 36% 以上 (36-39%) 的花青素 4. 具有獨家 HPLC 品種定序,含指紋圖譜,來自頂級的野生山桑子 5. 經過極低溫 (零下 35 度萃取),完整保留花青素含量  
2021-04-08

鈣跟鐵可以一起食用嗎? 別擔心,讓營養師來跟你說清楚

    鈣跟鐵能夠一起食用嗎? 在網路上的說法是鈣與鐵一起食用會干預鐵吸收,兩者會有競爭作用,所以千萬不能一起食用,最好間隔 2 小時以上;即使是許多的專業人士或機構也宣稱鐵不能和鈣一起食用。但這是真的嗎? 是否真的補鐵的同時食用鈣質,就完全無效呢? 讓我們來看看科學部分的證據。 許多短期的研究指出鈣會影響鐵的吸收,但這些研究主要是針對單一餐同時食用的結果。但其實針對長期食用狀態下的研究,調查針對不同飲食組成等的因素,發覺其實鈣對於鐵的吸收率並不會有顯著的影響。 而這些指出鈣鐵會互相干預吸收的研究,其準確性也遭受許多的質疑。其吸收率影響的多寡似乎根據不同的研究設計而有差異,包括測量吸收率的時間點,以及測量吸收率的方法。 此外,也有部分研究調查乳製品食物是否會影響鐵的吸收。在一項四天飲食的隨機交叉研究中,針對在三餐每餐同時飲用一杯牛乳,或是在同等含鈣量下,食用鈣加強的食物,結果發現並不會影響非血基質鐵(non-heme iron)的吸收。另一研究中發現,在一以植物蔬菜為主的飲食,同時額外食用牛奶或優格,並不會影響鐵的生物利用率。 在 2010 年的研究中發現,也許鈣跟鐵的吸收率短暫會有稍微的影響,但其實人體的腸道黏膜細胞,其基因表現會有所謂的反彈效應 (Rebound Effect),黏膜細胞會適應並進一步增進鐵的吸收率,因此長期食用,並不會有導致鐵質吸收不量甚引起缺乏的狀況。所以鈣跟鐵可以一起食用嗎? 其實根據許多研究的結果,是可以一起食用的,並不需要擔心。 《 文獻來源 》 1. Dawson-Hughes B et al. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44(1):83-8. 2. Hallberg L et al. Calcium: effect of different amounts of nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53(1):112-9. 3. Benkhedda K et al. Effect of calcium on iron absorption in women with marginal iron status. Br J Nutr 2010;103(5):742-8. 4. Minihane AM and Fairweather-Tait SJ. Effect of calcium supplementation on daily nonheme-iron absorption and long-term iron status. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(1):96-102. 5. Cook JD et al. Assessment of the role of nonheme-iron availability on iron balance. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(4):717-22. 6. Reddy MB and Cook JD. Effect of calcium intake on non-heme iron absorption from a complete diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(6):1820-5. 7. Lönnerdal B. Calcium and iron absorption–mechanisms and public health relevance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2010;80(4-5):293-9. 8. Grinder-Pedersen L et al. Calcium from milk or calcium-fortified foods does not inhibit nonheme-iron absorption from a whole diet consumed over a 4-d period. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(2):404-9. 9. Rosado JL et al. The addition of milk or yogurt to a plant-based diet increases zinc bioavailability but does not affect iron bioavailability in women. J Nutr 2005;135(3):465-8.  
2021-04-08

What Kind Of Vitamin B Supplements Is The Best?

    Vitamin B complex has always been one of the best-selling products in global dietary supplements market. Which vitamin B complex has the best effect? ​​Do you know what are the differences between different types? How to choose? Let our nutritionist tell you how to distinguish them. 1. The vitamin B complex emphasizes on the active form. This type of B vitamins has the best efficacy in clinical trials, and it is also the most commonly used ingredient in European and American dietary supplement brands. The active B vitamin ingredients include active B12 (methylcobalamin), active folate (methyltetrahydrofolate glucosamine salt), and vitamin B6 in the form of P5P. The active form of B vitamins have been proven to have excellent absorption rate. For example, the bioavailability of active folate is 10 times better than common folic acid in the market; meanwhile, the power of active vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) is 3 times more efficient than vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). Due to the higher price, these active ingredients are rarely used by the popular brands in the market, or may be added in lesser content level to lower the cost. However, the active form of B vitamins are the most effective ingredient that has been scientifically and clinically verified. Another key point of the active B vitamins (including the essential nutrient for humans – folic acid and vitamin B12) is its most special ability – provide methyl groups. The methyl groups have a decisive effect on the human body whereas other B vitamins don't have. Whether it is synthetic or natural, regardless of the absorption rate, the inactive vitamin Bs cannot provide methyl groups. As a result, they cannot regulate physiological functions. In fact, the effect that the active B vitamins can bring to the human body has greatly surpassed ordinary people's cognition that vitamin B complex only help boost energy levels. Active vitamin B complex supplement usually contains only one active ingredient, so the manufacturing of the formulation rely on the research and development capabilities of the brand. Many of the active vitamin B complex supplements are made by microbial fermentation, by doing so, the content is purer and the concentration is higher. It can be lower doses but have better results. 2. The vitamin B complex emphasizes on extracting from natural foods, such as yeast B-complex, buckwheat B-complex, or extracted from other food sources. This type of vitamin B group comes from natural food usually has lower concentration. As a result, you may have to take more capsules per day. Moreover, due to its low concentration, the odor/taste could be lighter. However, sourced from natural food is not equal to the active form! The effectiveness of vitamin B group is mainly determined by whether the form is active or not, even if it is derived from nature, its active content is low. The absorption rate of vitamin B complex extracted from natural foods is usually better than artificial chemical synthesis B complex, but it is still not as effective as the active type. Even though the concentration is low and the form is inactive, why do a bunch of supplements choose this natural yeast type of vitamin B complex? First of all, they are in it for the sake of the low price. Secondly, it’s less troublesome. Because the B group ingredients and content contained in the yeast B group are fixed and composed, the manufacturer only needs to purchase one raw material for processing and manufacturing whereas for the general B vitamins, you need to purchase a variety of different raw materials. In addition, because of the different content level, the raw materials purchased each time may not be used up at the same time. From the standpoint of the manufacturers, all of these increase the costs. Therefore, yeast or natural type of vitamin B complex supplements have become popular in recent years. 3. The inexpensive chemical synthesis type of vitamin B complex. This type is commonly found on the supplement market. Synthetic vitamins are not ineffective, but their component forms are not active forms, so the absorption rate is not as good. Besides, the quality of the raw materials varies greatly. Sometimes the synthesized type may have a very heavy odor/taste, so many manufacturers may use tablet form to avoid the unpleasant odor and prevent from moisture. In fact, the chemically synthesized type of B vitamins is the favorite raw material type for many manufacturers, because of its high stability, resistance to discoloration, and longer expiration time, which can extend sales and reduce overall costs. Next time when you want to buy vitamin B complex products, don't choose by price. Remember to go through the details on supplement label, so that you can choose wisely, and get the most benefit.  
2021-02-19

Is Vitamin D Supplementation Beneficial For Women During Pregnancy?

    The importance of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy is easily overlooked. Many people think that they can get enough vitamin D from the sun; however, they often neglect the factors influencing vitamin D via sun exposure. According to the analysis of the national nutrition and health data of the Ministry of Health and Welfare by professor Mei-Xuan Li from the School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, up to 98% of people have insufficient vitamin D concentration in the blood (the standard is 33μg/mL). The lowest vitamin D concentration was discovered among the age 19-44 group. The main reason is possibly due to the lack of the correct knowledge regarding vitamin D. The role of vitamin D in pregnancy is even more important, because the vitamin D level in mom-to-be would affect the vitamin D content of the fetus. Many studies have confirmed that vitamin D has different effects on women who are trying to conceive, in pregnancy and lactation. In 2009, an Australian study indicated that mothers with vitamin D deficiency had an average birth weight reduction of 200 grams in their neonates. Researches in the Netherlands also revealed that insufficient prenatal levels of vitamin D increases the risk of fetal underweight by 2.4 times. The importance of vitamin D in maternal and child health has been confirmed by more and more clinical studies. In addition, studies have found that the weight of pregnant women is very likely linked to the vitamin D deficiency. In another word, pregnancy overweight is related to low vitamin D content in the body. Compared with lean pregnant women (BMI < 25) – 36% of them lack of vitamin D, 61% of obese mothers (BMI > 30) suffer from a severe deficiency of prenatal levels of vitamin D. How much vitamin D should a pregnant woman take? It's generally recommended to take at least 400 to 600 IU of vitamin D3 daily. American Association of Clinical Endocrinology suggests to take 1500-2000 IU daily. If the pregnant woman is severely deficient, a higher dose should be supplemented under medical supervision. As for what is the safe dose range? A clinical study published in the journal “J Bone Miner Res” in 2011 indicated that a daily supplement of 4000 IU units of vitamin D3 is safe for pregnant women without side effects and can effectively increase vitamin D content in the body. The results from many other clinical trials also suggested that 2000-4000 IU per day for pregnant women is safe (Hollis BW, 2011; Hollis BW, 2013; Dawodu A, 2013; Grant CC, 2014). As for the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, the US National Institutes of Medicine (IOM) recommends an upper limit of 4000 IU per day.    
2021-02-19