孕婦應該補充維生素 D3 嗎?

    維生素 D3 對於孕婦的重要性很容易被忽略,特別是許多人覺得日曬就可以獲得足夠的維生素 D,卻輕忽從日曬獲得維生素 D 的影響因素很多,反而不容易經由日曬獲得足夠的維生素 D 含量。據國防醫學院公共衛生學系李美璇教授分析衛福部國民營養健康資料發現,高達 98% 的人,血液中維生素 D 濃度不足(標準是 33μg/mL),尤以 19~44 歲年齡層濃度最低,主要是因為對維生素 D 的認知不足。 對於孕婦部分,維生素 D 更為重要,因為孕媽咪體內的維生素 D 也會影響到胎兒的含量,許多研究都證實維生素 D 對於備孕、孕期、及哺乳的女性各有不同的影響。在 2009 年澳洲的一項研究發現,維生素 D 缺乏的母親,其新生兒體重平均會降低 200 公克。在荷蘭的研究也發現,母親維生素 D 不足,胎兒體重不足的風險機率增加 2.4 倍,其他還有更多的臨床研究證實維生素 D 對於孕媽咪的重要性。 此外,研究發現孕媽咪的體重與肥胖程度也與維生素 D 是否缺乏有關連性。孕婦孕期間肥胖與體內維生素 D 含量過低有關,61% 的肥胖女性 (BMI>30) 其孕前的維生素 D 嚴重缺乏,而 BMI 小於 25 的女性相比,只有 36%。 至於孕媽咪應該補充多少維生素 D,一般每日建議至少 400 到 600 IU 的維生素 D3;美國內分泌醫學會則建議每日補充 1500-2000 IU。若孕媽咪嚴重缺乏,則應在醫事人員的監督與建議下補充較高劑量。至於多少是安全的範圍? 在一項 2011 年發表於期刊 J Bone Miner Res 的臨床研究證實,每日補充 4000 IU 單位的維生素 D3,對於孕婦是安全無副作用的,並且能有效的提高體內維生素 D 含量。其他多篇臨床研究的結果也建議孕婦每日 2000-4000 IU 是安全的 (Hollis BW, 2011; Hollis BW, 2013; Dawodu A, 2013; Grant CC, 2014)。至於每日食用上限,美國國家醫學院 (IOM) 建議上限值為每日 4000 IU。    
2021-02-17

那種 B 群最有效? 營養師教你如何正確挑選 B 群

    維生素 B 群一直是市場的熱銷產品之一,但市售 B 群哪一種效果最好? 你知道各種不同形式差異在哪? 該怎麼挑選? 讓營養師來告訴你如何分辨。 1. 強調活性形式的 B 群。此種 B 群是在臨床研究上最有效的,也是歐美醫療通路品牌最常使用的成分。活性成分的 B 群例如所謂的活性 B12 (甲鈷胺)、活性葉酸(甲基四氫葉酸葡萄糖胺鹽)、或 P5P形式的維生素 B6 等。活性的維生素 B 群在研究上已經證實有著絕佳的吸收率,例如活性葉酸生物利用率是一般市售葉酸的 10 倍;活性維生素 B12 其成效也是一般市售維生素 B12 (氰鈷胺)的 3 倍。但由於其價格昂貴,所以市售品牌較少使用,或可能添加量較少。但活性形式的維生素 B 群是食用上經過科學研究與臨床驗證的最有效成分。 此外,活性 B 群的另一個重點,包括對人體最重要的葉酸與維生素 B12,其最特殊的能力是能提供甲基 (methyl group),甲基對於人體具有決定性的功效,這也是其他 B 群所無法提供的功能,無論是合成或是天然,無論吸收率多少,因為非活性 B 群本身就沒有帶有甲基,因此無法特定的調節生理機能。所以活性 B 群所能帶給人體的效用,已經大幅超越一般人對於只能幫助精神旺盛的認知。 活性維生素 B 群的原料通常是單方成分為主,所以在配方的製造與含量搭配上,就仰賴品牌商的研發能力。而活性的維生素 B 群許多是由微生物發酵所製成,所以含量較純,濃度較高,在食用也能滿足更少的食用顆數,但卻能帶來更好的效果。 2. 強調天然食物萃取的維生素 B 群,例如酵母 B 群、蕎麥 B 群、或是從其他食物中萃取的 B 群來源。這類 B 群通常在市面上販售主打就是天然,通常天然食物萃取的B群濃度低,因此可能要吃較為多顆,此外由於其濃度低,所以相對的 B 群味道較淡,但要注意的是天然食物萃取並不等於活性形式! B 群的效能主要決定在形式是否為活性,即使是天然萃取的 B 群,其所含的活性形式成分仍相當低。天然食物萃取的維生素 B 群吸收率通常已經較人工化學合成 B 群來的佳,但仍然不及活性形式 B 群來的效果好。 但濃度低,又非活性形式,為什麼市售一堆產品都要出天然酵母 B 群等產品? 主要是因為價格便宜,此外,可以省卻品牌商的麻煩。因為酵母 B 群內含的 B 群成分與含量是固定的,也已經搭配好,所以廠商只需要購買一種原料,即可加工製造。跟一般 B 群相比,需要採購多種不同原料,此外由於用量不同,每次採購的不同原料不一定能當次用完,對於品牌商而言,都是成本,所以酵母或食物萃取 B 群,成為這幾年的熱門產品,也是因為省卻了品牌商的麻煩。 3. 廉價的人工化學合成 B 群。這也是市售許多品牌所使用的維生素。人工合成的維生素並非沒有效用,只是其成分形式並非活性的形式,所以吸收率較差,此外,其原料好壞差異甚大,有時可能有著非常重的 B 群臭味,因此許多廠商可能用打錠的方式,並加上膜衣,除了可避免過重的臭味散發,也可以避免受潮。此外,化學合成的 B 群由於其穩定性高、不易變色、保存期限長可拉長販售時間,所以也是許多廠商愛用的原料,因為可以相對降低成本。 下次挑選 B 群時,別在單以價格去區分,記得多看產品上的標示,才能夠聰明挑選 B 群,食用有效益。  
2021-02-17

The Key Factor Affects Supplements Efficacy

    Natural food or nutrients extracted from natural sources have been the popular keywords in search engines in recent years. There have been many dietary supplements indicated their ingredients coming from natural sources, including natural yeast B group, etc. It seems that as long as the word "natural" is marked, consumers will trust and buy. However, the effectiveness of a supplement is not only decided by the naturalness and purity, the key factor affects the efficacy is actually the structural form. Unfortunately, the information regarding the structural form is unable to be presented fully in Chinese, which makes it difficult for consumers to make smart choice when it comes to pick up right supplements. Why does structural form matter most? Here are a few clinical evidences would help you understand : 1. The active form of folic acid, also known as (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate glucosamine salt, is 10 times higher absorption rate than ordinary folic acid. On the supplemental markets, “folic acid” is the most used form. Even the ones derived from natural yeast are also the general folic acid, which contains only a small amount of active folic acid. 2. The fish oil exists in natural fish meat is in the form of TG; however, TG form must be converted into EE form during concentration process. Many fish oil supplements are presented with EE form. In fact, the best concentrated fish oil must go through the process of re-esterification, by which it returns to TG form. This kind of concentrated fish oil is called re-esterified triglyceride (rTG). In many studies, the fish oil of rTG form has been proven that its effect is higher than the concentrated EE form. A study in September 2010 confirmed that the rTG concentrated omega-3 fish oil has the highest bioavailability, 124% higher than the general natural fish oil (non-concentrated TG form), while EE form fish oil has only 73% efficacy! 3. Vitamin E is a common ingredient in multivitamin, but it is also divided into natural and synthetic form. Natural vitamin E is generally labelled d-alpha tocopherol, its common extract source is soybeans. On the other hand, the synthetic vitamin E is labeled as dl-alpha-tocopherol. The difference between the two forms is obvious in English, but not in Chinese (in which collectively referred to as vitamin E). However, due to the difference in its structure, the efficacy of synthetic vitamin E is only about 12% of natural vitamin E. 4. Compare the vitamin D2 from natural foods (generally sourced from mushrooms) with the vitamin D3 from natural foods (generally sourced from lanolin), vitamin D3 has also been proven to be more effective than vitamin D2 in many studies. 5. Vitamin K, which is common seen in calcium supplements, also comes in different forms. Vitamin K2 is considered better than vitamin K1. In fact, vitamin K2 is divided into the form of MK-4 and MK-7, and MK-7 has been proven to be more effective than MK-4 and Vitamin K1 by clinical studies. 6. Vitamin B12 is a common ingredient in B-Complex products, the Methylcobalamin form has a higher bioavailability and utilization in human than the Cyanocobalamin form. Methylcobalamin can remains in the body for a longer period of time and at higher levels than Cyanocobalamin. Even the vitamin B12 in natural yeast B group uses the form of cyanocobalamin. The price between the two raw materials is 130 times difference. Methylcobalamin is measured in grams and is priced in ten thousand NT dollars per gram, while cyanocobalamin is about 2000-3000 NT dollars per kilogram. Although the active form is expensive, it’s the guarantee of the efficacy. The similar examples listed above are too many to mention. Basically, the lower the cost of the ingredients, the lower the price of the products, which is the reason the price difference of dietary supplements ranging from hundreds to thousands of NT dollars on the market. However, the effectiveness is relatively obvious. The truth is even the ingredients come from natural sources, the efficacy may not be the optimal. Therefore, focusing on the essence of nutrient – its structural form can ensure the best results. That is the mainstream in terms of choosing supplementation. Next time, when you are up to buying some nutritional products, in addition to get product recommendations/reviews online or by some advertisements, please remember to look closely the forms of ingredients of the supplements you want to buy. By doing so, you can buy with a peace of mind and then really benefit from the products. For the sake of health, it is important to spend money wisely on the effective products. No matter how cheaper the product is, if it has low potency, it doesn’t worth it at all.    
2021-01-20

營養品除了天然,食用成效還有更重要的決定性因素

    天然食物或萃取自天然來源的營養素,是這幾年熱門的關鍵字。市面上一窩蜂的出現號稱天然來源的營養品,包括天然酵母 B 群等,似乎只要打上天然兩字,消費者就會買單,但其實營養品的成效好壞,除了天然與純度等因素之外,最具有決定性的影響是其成分的結構形式,而這形式在一般中文上部分資訊並無法完整呈現,也導致消費者無法清楚選擇。 為什麼我們說 "形式" 是影響一個保健營養品最具有決定性的因素? 舉幾項臨床實證,你就會明瞭 : 1. 活性形式的葉酸,又稱為 (6S)-5-甲基四氫葉酸葡萄糖胺鹽 [(6s)-5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid Glucosamine Salt],與一般的葉酸 (Folic Acid) 相比較,身體利用率高出十倍。一般葉酸 (Folic Acid) 就是市面上絕大多數營養品的形式,即使是天然酵母來源的葉酸,也幾乎都是一般葉酸 (Folic Acid),只含有很微量的活性葉酸。 2. 魚油,天然魚肉中的魚油是 TG 形式,但要經過濃縮,必須轉變為 EE 形式,不少濃縮魚油商會直接以此形式販售,但最好的濃縮魚油,則必須再經過重新酯化的過程,將其重新變回 TG 形式,而此種濃縮魚油又稱為 rTG 形式魚油,rTG 的魚油在許多的研究中也證實其效果比濃縮EE形式魚油來的更高。在 2010 年 9 月份的研究證實,重新酯化型三酸甘油酯(rTG)型式的濃縮 omega-3 魚油的生物利用率最高,比一般天然魚油 (非濃縮 TG 形式) 高出 124%,而 EE 型式 (濃縮 EE 形式魚油) 只有 73% 的效力! 3. 維生素 E 是綜合維他命中常見的成分,但其同樣有分天然與合成形式,天然的維生素 E 是 d-form (d-alpha-tocopherol),常見萃取來源為大豆,人工合成的維生素 E 則是 dl- form (dl-alpha-tocopherol),在英文上可以看出明顯差異,但中文則沒有區分,統稱為維生素 E。但由於其結構上的差異,人工合成維生素E其效力大概只有天然的維生素E12% 左右。 4. 同樣來自天然食物的維生素 D2 (一般來源為蘑菇),以及同樣來自天然的維生素 D3 (一般來源為羊毛脂),維生素 D3 在許多研究也證實效果比維生素 D2 更好。 5. 鈣質產品中常見的維生素 K,有不同的形式來源。維生素 K2 比維生素 K1 好。而維生素 K2 又分為 MK-4 和 MK-7 形式,而 MK-7 在臨床研究上證實效果比 MK-4 和維生素 K1 都要來的好得多。 6. B 群成分中常見的維生素 B12,甲鈷胺形式 (Methylcobalamin) 比氰鈷胺 (Cyanocobalamin) 形式人體利用率更高,氰鈷胺食用後的流失速度也更快,但即使天然酵母 B 群也幾乎都是氰鈷胺形式的維生素 B12,兩者在原料上的差異價格差了 130 倍,甲鈷胺是用公克為單位,以萬元計價,氰鈷胺則是一公斤 2000-3000 元左右,活性形式的成分雖然貴,但才是食用後成效的保證。 這些例子不勝枚舉,但基本上效力越差的原料,其成本非常低廉,這也為什麼市面上你可以看到營養品價差從數百元到數千元都有,但食用後的成效相對的差異也很明顯。即使打著天然來源的營養品,其效果也不一定是最佳的,所以購買營養品還是回歸到營養素的本質,也就是其結構形式,才能夠確保食用後的成效,這也是國外營養品的趨勢主流。 下次當您購買營養品時,除了看五花八門的網路行銷與推薦文外,記得多回頭研究一下您購買的營養品形式,當個聰明的消費者,才能買得安心,食用有成效。為了身體健康,花錢購買營養品,選擇有效的成分才是重點;若是效能低落的營養品,無論價格多便宜,其實都是太貴。  
2021-01-20

What's UC-II/UC2? Is It Better Than Glucosamine + Chondroitin?

      What is UC-II/UC2?How Much Should You Take Per Day? What Is The Effect of UC-II/UC2? Who Need To Take UC-II/UC2? The Ideal Time of The Day To Take UC-II/UC2? The Four Tips To Select UC-II/UC2     What is UC-II/UC2?How Much Should You Take Per Day? The traditional notion of taking glucosamine and chondroitin supplements has been questioned by some clinical studies because the effect is not obvious. Among the latest formulas for the maintenance regarding our flexibility and movement, UC-II/UC2 (Undenatured Collagen Type II) is a frequently used supplement ingredient. UC2/UC-II (Undenatured Collagen Type II) refers to "Undenatured Collagen Type II". It is mainly extracted from chicken breast cartilage at low temperature and has high safety. In recent years, it has been commonly used for supporting the maintenance of body flexibility and movement. Due to the low temperature manufacturing processes, UC2/UC-II can retain the original three-strand spiral structure. To achieve significant results, 1500 mg/day of glucosamine + 1200 mg/day of chondroitin is required by clinical trial whereas a small daily dose of 40 mg on an empty stomach is what needed if you use UC-II. This is a sufficient dose suggested by the original factory and academic publications, which has been proven for the best results. Before you purchase, you should pay attention to check if the original authorized LOGO of UC2/UC-II is provided on the label, to make sure the source of the raw material. What Is The Effect of UC-II/UC2? The raw material of UC2/UC-II comes from Lonza, a major American manufacturer. Taking UC-II/UC2 could help regulate the function of specific parts in our body. There are a large number of clinical research data could support and prove that after taking UC2/UC-II supplements, the results regarding mobility, flexibility, comfort and other functions are more effective than "glucosamine + chondroitin". Besides, no serious side effects have been found. Therefore, UC-II/UC2 has been recommended by many medical professionals and professional health care personnel. Who Need To Take UC-II/UC2? 1. Elders 2. Sports lovers or athletes 3. People who work long hours 4. People who like climbing or walking The Ideal Time of The Day To Take UC-II/UC2? It is recommended to take UC-II/UC2 supplements on an empty stomach, between meals or before going to bed. The low amount of gastric acid during fasting can reduce the possibility of destroying the structure of UC-II/UC2 to ensure the effect after consumption. The Four Tips To Select UC-II/UC2: 1. Check if the original authorized LOGO of UC2/UC-II is provided on the packaging of the supplement. 2. Supplement 40mg UC-II / UC2 daily. Sufficient dose is required to see the results. 3. Pair with other ingredients to have better efficacy. 4. Choose capsule form, which is convenient and easy to swallow. Plus, the transparent capsule is the best. Avoid to take colored/white pigments, which will burden the body. The white capsule shell uses titanium dioxide as a colorant; however, studies have linked titanium dioxide to cancer risk. France has taken the lead in the EU to ban titanium dioxide as an additive in food since 2020. Moreover, capsule can eliminate the adhesive and film coating used on the tablet.
2021-01-08

UC-II/UC2 比葡萄糖胺效果更好? 非變性第二型膠原蛋白推薦

      UC-II/UC2 是什麼成分? 每天食用多少才有效? UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白的功效 UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白適合誰吃? UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白食用時間? UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白挑選 4 大重點     UC-II/UC2 是什麼成分?每天食用多少才有效? 傳統觀念上食用葡萄糖胺和軟骨素的思維已經被部分臨床研究質疑效果不彰。在最新的靈活保養配方,市售商品常看到的就是 UC-II/UC2(Undenatured Collagen Type II)。 UC2/UC-II (Undenatured Collagen Type II) 指的是「非變性第二型膠原蛋白」,主要使用低溫萃取自雞胸軟骨萃取,安全性高,是這幾年來常見於身體靈活度保養與行動環節關鍵上的保健品,也由於其使用低溫製程,保有原始的三股螺旋結構。 不同於葡萄糖胺和軟骨素,臨床上要食用到 1500 毫克與 1200 毫克的高食用量才能達到顯著成效。UC2/UC-II 每日建議食用量為 40 毫克且空腹使用,這是原廠及學術發表上的足夠劑量,也可以達到最佳成效。此外,購買時要注意必須有 UC2/UC-II 的原廠授權 LOGO 標章才是正版原料來源。 UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白的功效? UC2/UC-II 原料來自於美國大廠 Lonza,食用 UC-II/UC2 後會幫助調節特定部位的功能。有大量的臨床研究數據支持並證明食用 UC2/UC-II 後其行動力、靈活度、舒適度等功效都比「葡萄糖胺與軟骨素」感受度更佳,且目前未發現嚴重之副作用,因此受到許多醫療專業人士及專業健康照護人員的推薦。 UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白適合誰吃? 1. 年長的銀髮族 2. 熱愛運動的重度運動族群或職業運動選手 3. 長時間體力勞動的勞工族 4. 熱愛登山健走的登山愛好者 UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白食用時間? 建議在空腹的狀態下食用,在餐與餐之間的空檔吃或是於睡前食用。因空腹時胃酸量低,可以降低破壞 UC-II/UC2 結構的可能性,以確保食用後的成效。 UC-II/UC2 非變性第二型膠原蛋白挑選 4 大重點 : 1. 確認是否有原廠的商標。 2. 要攝取足量才能夠發揮功效,每日補充 40mg UC-II/UC2。 3. 搭配複方,提供作用加乘,效果更佳。 4. 挑選膠囊型式,方便易吞嚥,且透明膠囊最佳,避免食用有色/白色的色素,反而對身體造成負擔;白色的膠囊殼是使用二氧化鈦作為著色劑,但在動物實驗二氧化鈦可能有致癌的風險,法國已經在 2020 年率先歐盟禁用。此外,選用膠囊可免去錠劑所使用的黏著劑跟膜衣。
2021-01-08

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備孕期 And, after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit. Conduct may be founded on the hard rock or the wet marshes, but after a certain point I don't care what it's founded on. When I came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to be in uniform and at a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart. Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from my reaction-Gatsby, who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn. If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away. This responsiveness had nothing to do with that flabby impressionability which is dignified under the name of the "creative temperament"-it was an extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic readiness such as I have never found in any other person and which it is not likely I shall ever find again. No-Gatsby turned out all right at the end; it is what preyed on Gatsby, what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams that temporarily closed out my interest in the abortive sorrows and short-winded elations of men. 備孕期 HTML link code generator And, after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit. Conduct may be founded on the hard rock or the wet marshes, but after a certain point I don't care what it's founded on. When I came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to be in uniform and at a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart. Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from my reaction-Gatsby, who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn. If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away. This responsiveness had nothing to do with that flabby impressionability which is dignified under the name of the "creative temperament"-it was an extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic readiness such as I have never found in any other person and which it is not likely I shall ever find again. No-Gatsby turned out all right at the end; it is what preyed on Gatsby, what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams that temporarily closed out my interest in the abortive sorrows and short-winded elations of men. HTML link code generator
2020-12-30

The Pregnancy Vitamins and Nutrients Advice from Nutritionist of Obstetrics & Gynecology

    In addition to a healthy diet during pregnancy, many pregnant women are curious about how to supplement their nutrition during pregnancy, because vitamins and minerals play a key role in maternal and fetal growth. Most moms-to-be care about their dietary intake. However, do you understand the nutritional needs at different stages of pregnancy? The Pregnancy Vitamins and Nutrients Advice :   Trying To Conceive Period: The most important nutrient for women who are trying to conceive is folate. The recommended daily intake of folate is 600-800 mcg. Some people have a genetic mutation that hinders their body from properly and efficiently converting supplemental folic acid (a synthetic version of folate) to its usable form. Therefore, an activated form of folate is the best choice at this stage. Studies have confirmed that the absorption rate of active folate is 98% higher than the synthetic folic acid. For the same intake of folate, the efficiency of active folate is much better. The key points for pregnant women to choose folate : ❯ Choose the active coenzyme form of folate (Methyltetrahydrofolate Glucosamine Salt). Differed from artificially synthesized folic acid, the active coenzyme form of folate can be used directly in the body. ❯ Choose the easy-to-swallow capsule form, which is more natural and no additives. ❯ The recommended daily amount of folate for women who are planning pregnancy is 600-800 mcg a day, and should not exceed the upper limit of 1,000 mcg. First Trimester : The first trimester is when the mom-to-be enters the first stage of welcoming a new life. It’s a very important time for the development of the fetus. During these first few months of pregnancy, your body would go through a lot of changes and might feel uncomfortable. Taking right dietary supplements could effectively help moms-to-be to pass the difficult period of time. In the first trimester, in addition to supplement folate, vitamin B-complex is also recommended by American Pregnancy Association. Here are some tips for selecting vitamin B-complex : The key points for pregnant women to choose prenatal vitamins : ❯ Choose the vitamin B-complex contains active folate, which can support the healthy development and growth of fetus. ❯ Choose the vitamin B-complex contains vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin) in the form of an active coenzyme, which can improve the health of the nervous system. ❯ Choose the vitamin B-complex includes a higher amount of vitamin B6, which can help pregnant women to get through the tough stage of the first trimester better. As for the upper limit of vitamin B6, do not exceed 100 mg per day. ❯ Choline – Choline has been confirmed by many researches that plays an essential role in supporting the development of fetus. Choline exists in many foods, but studies have found that the daily supplement of it is still not enough via diet. Thus, moms-to-be can eat more foods containing choline, including eggs, milk, beef, etc; or choose the vitamin B-complex containing choline, which should be more convenient. ❯ Iodine – The American Association of Pregnant Women has named folic acid, calcium, iron, iodine and vitamin D as the five most important nutrients during pregnancy. Iodine is an essential nutrient that is vital for the healthy development before birth. However, iodine is a common nutrient that may be deficient. According to a national dietary survey in Taiwan, nearly 50% of people are iodine deficient; meanwhile, the need for iodine during pregnancy is higher than that of the average adult. Usually, it is recommended to have at least 225 mcg of iodine per day during pregnancy. Therefore, it is suggested that the prenatal multivitamins should contain sufficient iodine to support the development before birth. General speaking, during the try-to-conceive period and the first trimester, supplementing the multivitamins contain active folate or the vitamin B-Complex includes active folate would be fine. The key point is to supplement enough active folate; the recommendation is 600~800 mcg daily. Second Trimester : At the beginning of the second trimester, the fetus begins to grow up, and the weight of the mom-to-be starts to rise slowly at the same time. It is recommended to increase the weight by 5 kg during the second trimester. During this trimester, in addition to continuing to supplement the vitamin B group, calcium and vitamin D3 should be added as well. Many pregnant women may suffer from gastrointestinal discomfort; in this case, some of them may easily have gas or other conditions if calcium carbonate are taken. Hence, calcium carbonate is generally not recommended. Although seaweed calcium is from natural source, it is also the same form as calcium carbonate. Pregnant women should choose according to their personal conditions. The calcium intake is recommended to be more than 1000 mg per day. However, we recommend that only 2/3 of your calcium supplementation is supplemented by dietary supplements (approximately 600 mg). And the other 1/3 should be taken via food sources, including 1-2 cups of milk daily or eat foods rich in calcium, such as cheese, tofu or dried fish. Moreover, it should be paid attention that calcium intake should not exceed 500 mg at one time. When it exceeds 500 mg, the absorption rate will be reduced. In short, calcium is best absorbed when it’s taken in smaller doses; it’s better to split it into two or more doses over the day. The key points for pregnant women to choose calcium : ❯ Choose New Zealand bovine bone calcium. The form of bovine bone calcium is the same as the structure of human bones; as a result, the absorption rate is better. Bovine bone calcium also contains type 1 collagen, various minerals, bone protein and growth factors. Proven by clinical studies, it is the optimal calcium choice with best efficacy. ❯ A good calcium supplement should contain the ingredients of vitamin D3 and K2. Vitamin K2 can promote bone calcification. The key of selecting K2 is to choose the MK-7 form of vitamin K2 instead of vitamin K1, because vitamin K1 is less effective. As for the content of vitamin K2, by Dietary Reference Intakes announced by Health Promotion Administration, it is recommended that women and pregnant women should take at least 90 μg per day. As for the beginning of the second trimester, vitamin D3 is also recommended to supplement daily. It is recommended to supplement 600 IU daily. In addition to helping calcium absorption, vitamin D3 also has many effects on pregnant women. Therefore, some experts or doctors even suggest mom-to-be who is at risk of vitamin D3 deficiency can supplement 1000-2000 IU a day. However, it’s better to consult professional medical professionals beforehand. According to the information from American Pregnancy Association and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the daily nutrient upper limit (UL) of vitamin D is recommended to be relatively safe within 4000 IU daily. Third Trimester : In addition to calcium, the most important nutrient added during the third trimester is iron. Iron plays very important role in the third trimester and breastfeeding period. Therefore, the recommended intake will be higher than that in the first and second trimesters. Studies have shown that iron supplementation during the second and third trimesters of pregnant women is often overlooked. The Dietary Nutrient Reference Intakes (DRIs) in China suggest that 45 mg of iron should be supplemented a day during the third trimester and lactation. However, regarding iron supplementation, its form and intake amount at a time will have a great impact. If a high dose is taken at one time, it may cause conditions such as gastrointestinal discomfort, and can also lead to a lower absorption rate. In terms of the form of the iron, Ferrous Bisglycinate is often recommends. Ferrous Bisglycinate is an amino acid chelate iron, especially the US Albion® patented Ferrochel® is considered as the best source of raw materials for iron supplement. Its effect is better than the general ferrous fumarate and ferrous citrate; it will not cause constipation. The key points for pregnant women to choose iron : ❯ Ferrous Bisglycinate is the top choice because it is less likely to cause constipation and other conditions. ❯ The recommendation of iron supplement is low-dose at a time and divide into several times a day, 15 mg of Ferrous Bisglycinate at one time, plus a day can be supplemented with iron of about 30-45 mg. You could adjust according to individual conditions, or suggestion from your obstetricians or medical professionals. ❯ The optimal formulation of iron is recommended to also contain ingredients of vitamin C, B6, folate and vitamin B12. Vitamin C can promote iron absorption. Meanwhile, it is advised to contain vitamin B12 and folate to help the formation of red blood cells. Moreover, vitamin B6 can contribute to the formation of porphyrin in red blood cells and helps red blood cells to maintain healthy form. Including these ingredients in the iron formula can enhance the efficacy greatly. In terms of Omega-3, it is advised to supplement throughout the whole pregnancy. As for the choice of Omega-3, it is recommended to take daily the kind contains more than 300 mg of DHA and also EPA. Many doctors and experts have confirmed EPA is a safe ingredient for pregnant women; EPA is especially important for older pregnant women. EPA can support the delivery and absorption of DHA. However, it is generally not recommended to consume fish oil with too high EPA content. There are some specially concentrated high EPA fish oil products (EPA : DHA = 5 : 1 or higher) on the market, but such high EPA fish oils have not been proven safe during pregnancy and are generally not recommended. However, the fish oil with a normal ratio of EPA : DHA = 3 : 2 is recommended by experts as a fish oil formula suitable for pregnancy. The ratio of 3 : 2 is also the original ratio in the natural seafood we eat. If fish oil is taken with vitamin D simultaneously, both are fat-soluble nutrients, so the absorption rate and potency would be better. During the lactation period, postpartum moms must continue to pay attention to the supplementation of calcium, iron, fish oil and vitamin B-complex, these supplementations can enrich nutrients in breast milk. Moreover, taking care of newborns is not an easy task, vitamin B-complex can help strengthen the physical strength, energy and nutrition after childbirth. Lecithin is also an ingredient that many women use to supplement in postpartum period. Although there is no direct clinical evidence to prove that it is helpful, many new moms do feel its effect. A small amount of 1000 mg lecithin can be supplemented daily during the third trimester and 3000 mg daily after delivery. However, lecithin is a selective nutrient. If you feel like to take or wonder how much to take, it is recommended that you consult your obstetrician, gynecologist, nutritionist, medical professionals or pharmacists. By the way, one of the most important nutrient supplements for infants and young children is vitamin D3. Both Taiwan and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that breastfed babies or the babies mixing formula with breast milk are suggested to supplement vitamin D3 400 IU daily to help developmental needs. As for the daily upper limit of vitamin D supplementation for infants and young children, it is recommended not to exceed 1000 IU a day.  
2020-12-09

孕期營養五階段怎麼吃? 婦產專科營養師教你全攻略,完整版孕婦營養建議

    懷孕期除了健康的飲食之外,很多孕媽咪最好奇的就是孕期營養品如何補充,尤其寶寶的成長只有一次,因此很多孕媽咪都很注重每日食用的保健品,但是針對不同孕期,最重要的是補充甚麼樣的營養品呢 ?  完整版孕婦營養建議 :   《 備孕期 》 在備孕期,準備懷孕的孕媽咪最重要的就是葉酸的補充,一天建議攝取量是 600-800 微克,但由於有些人有基因部分影響,因此食用一般營養品中的人工合成形式葉酸 (Folic Acid) 也無法利用,所以這階段活性葉酸是最好的選擇。活性葉酸的吸收率經過研究證實也比一般人工合成葉酸高出 98%。同樣食用葉酸,當然選擇活性葉酸效果較佳。 孕媽咪葉酸挑選重點: ❯ 活性輔酶形式葉酸 (甲基四氫葉酸葡萄糖胺鹽),不同於人工合成的葉酸,可以供人體食用後直接利用。 ❯ 挑選膠囊形式易吞嚥,此外,膠囊較為天然,無添加物。 ❯ 每日葉酸建議攝取量 600-800 微克,上限不要超過 1000 微克。 《 第一孕期 》 第一孕期開始就是孕媽咪邁入迎接新生命的第一階段,這時候的寶寶發育非常重要,加上有些孕媽咪在第一孕期會經歷相當不舒服的過程,因此挑選適合的營養品,可以有效幫助孕媽咪度過最辛苦的第一階段。在第一孕期,重點補充除了葉酸之外,這時候維生素 B 群開始扮演著重要的角色,美國孕婦協會 (American Pregnancy Association) 也建議孕媽咪要補充維生素 B 群,但維生素 B 群應該怎麼挑? 孕媽咪挑選孕期維他命重點: ❯ 含活性葉酸的 B 群或孕期綜合維他命,有助胎兒的正常發育與生長。 ❯ 含活性輔酶形式的維生素 B12 (甲鈷胺),能增進神經系統的健康。 ❯ 若孕媽咪第一孕期不適感較為強烈,可以挑選含較高量的維生素 B6。至於維生素 B6 的上限,每日不要超過 100 毫克。 ❯ 膽鹼 – 膽鹼在研究上已經證實對於寶寶的發育扮演著非常重要的角色,膽鹼存在於許多食物中,但研究發現每日的攝取量還是不足夠,因此孕媽咪可以選擇多食用含膽鹼的食物,包含雞蛋、牛奶、牛肉等,或是選擇含膽鹼的維生素 B 群,更為方便。 ❯ 碘 – 美國孕婦協會將葉酸、鈣、鐵、碘與維生素 D 必列孕期最重要的五個營養素,因為碘對於寶寶的重點部位發育非常重要。而碘確實常見可能不足的營養素,台灣部分根據國民飲食調查,將近 50% 的人都缺碘,而孕期部份對於碘的需求,比一般成年人更高,通常孕期建議每日至少要有225 微克的碘,因此建議孕期綜合維他命需要注意有足量的碘,來支持寶寶的發育。 一般孕媽咪可以補充含活性葉酸的孕期綜合維他命,或是含活性葉酸的綜合 B 群皆可,但重點是備孕與第一孕期的活性葉酸補充,建議一定要有 600-800 微克喲。 《 第二孕期 》 第二孕期開始寶寶開始發育長大,孕媽咪的體重也開始慢慢上升,第二孕期體重建議增加 5 公斤為宜。而在第二孕期的重點除了持續補充 B 群之外,開始要加入鈣以及維生素 D3。在孕期,很多孕媽咪可能因為懷孕等影響會有腸胃較不舒服的狀況,因此若食用碳酸鈣等鈣質,有部分孕媽咪可能容易引起脹氣等狀況,因此一般較不建議碳酸鈣。海藻鈣雖然是天然來源,但形式上也是碳酸鈣,所以孕媽咪食用上可以依個人狀況選擇。 此外,鈣質部分,在攝取量一天會建議 1000 毫克以上,但我們對於鈣質的補充,建議 2/3 由營養品補充 (大約是 600 毫克),另外 1/3 由食物來源攝取,包括一天 1-2 杯的牛奶,或是食用含高鈣的食物,包括起司、豆腐、小魚乾皆可。另外要注意的是,鈣質攝取,單次不要超過 500 毫克,因為超過 500 毫克,吸收率就會降低,因此建議分次食用效果較好。 孕媽咪挑選鈣重點: ❯ 選擇紐西蘭牛骨鈣,牛骨鈣的形式與人體骨骼結構相同,因此吸收率好。此外,牛骨鈣還含有第一型膠原蛋白、各種礦物質、及骨蛋白和生長因子,是臨床研究上具有相當好成效的鈣質來源選擇。 ❯ 好的鈣質補充品,除了維生素 D3 之外,還需要添加維生素 K2,維生素 K2 可以促進骨質的鈣化,挑選的重點在於選擇 MK-7 形式的維生素 K2,而不是維生素 K1,因為維生素 K1 效果較差。至於維生素 K2 的含量,在衛生福利部國民健康署公布的國人膳食營養素參考攝取量 (DRIs) 建議女性及孕婦一天最少要 90 微克以上。 至於第二孕期開始,維生素 D3 也會建議開始加入日常補充,每日建議補充 600 IU,維生素 D3 除了對於鈣的吸收有幫助之外,對於孕媽咪還有很多的功效,因此有些專家或醫師甚至會建議有缺乏風險的孕媽咪可以補充 1000-2000 IU,但建議您是在專業醫療人士建議與評估後才能食用較為高量的維生素 D3。根據美國孕婦協會以及美國國家衛生研究院 (NIH) 的資料指出,維生素 D 的每日營養素上限值 (Upper Limit; UL) 建議 4000 IU 以內都是相對安全的含量。 《 第三孕期 》 第三孕期除了鈣之外,另一個要注意的重點營養素就是鐵,鐵在第三孕期和哺乳期,都是非常重要的礦物質,因此建議攝取量也會比第一和第二孕期來的更高。而研究也顯示,孕媽咪在第二與第三孕期的鐵質補充,也是常被忽略的營養素。在國人膳食營養素參考攝取量 (DRIs) 建議第三孕期與哺乳期一天要補充 45 毫克的鐵,但鐵的補充,形式和單次食用量會影響甚大,若單次食用高劑量,可能會導致腸胃不適的狀況,也會導致吸收率較低。而在形式上,鐵的選擇一般建議甘胺酸亞鐵 (Ferrous Bisglycinate),甘胺酸亞鐵是屬於胺基酸螯合鐵,尤其以美國 Albion® 專利甘氨酸亞鐵 Ferrochel® (Ferrous Bisglycinate Chelate) 為最佳原料來源,效果比一般的反丁烯二酸亞鐵及檸檬酸亞鐵等效果來的更好,也不會導致便秘等狀況。 孕媽咪挑選鐵重點: ❯ 甘胺酸亞鐵是首選,因為較不易導致便秘等狀況。 ❯ 單次低劑量,一天分多次食用,單次建議 15 毫克的甘胺酸亞鐵,一天可以補充鐵質 30-45 毫克左右,依照各人狀況或是婦產科醫師及醫療專業人士建議調整。 ❯ 鐵的配方選擇,建議要同時含有維生素 C、B6、葉酸與維生素 B12。維生素 C 可促進鐵吸收。 此外,建議含有維生素 B12 與葉酸,有助於紅血球的形成。維生素 B6 有助於紅血球中紫質的形成,有助於紅血球維持正常型態。在鐵的配方中含有這些輔助成分,可以加強食用後的成效。 在 Omega-3 部分,我們會建議全期都可以食用,至於選擇,建議每日含有至少 300 毫克以上的 DHA,並且含有 EPA。EPA 對於孕媽咪是安全的成分,很多醫師、專家及專業的發表研究也都證實此一論點。而 EPA 對於高齡的孕媽咪更為重要,EPA 可以協助 DHA 的運送與吸收。但通常不建議食用太高 EPA 比例的魚油,市面上有特別濃縮高EPA的魚油 (EPA : DHA = 5 : 1或更高),但此種高 EPA 的魚油尚未經過孕期安全性的證明,一般大多不建議食用。但正常比例 EPA : DHA = 3 : 2 的魚油,專家建議這是適合孕期的魚油配方。而 3 : 2 的比例,也正是我們食用天然海鮮中的原始比例喲。而魚油若能與維生素 D 一同食用,不僅僅都屬於脂溶性營養素,更好吸收,效果更佳。 至於《 哺乳期 》,產後的媽咪須持續重視鈣、鐵、魚油的補充及維生素 B 群的食用,仍然可以幫助乳汁中含有更豐富的營養。此外,產後的媽咪要照顧小孩更為辛苦,維生素 B 群可以幫助增強體力、精神旺盛、產前產後之補養。卵磷脂則是許多產後媽咪會食用的成分,雖然在臨床上沒有直接的研究證據顯示有幫助,但確實很多媽咪覺得有感。在第三孕期可以每日少量補充 1000 毫克,產後可以每日 3000 毫克,但卵磷脂屬於選擇性營養素,是否需要食用或要食用多少,建議您也可以詢問您的婦產科醫師、營養師、藥師等醫療專業人士。 再者,嬰幼兒最重要的營養素補充之一就是維生素 D3,台灣及美國兒科醫學會都建議,全母乳或半配方奶寶寶每日建議補充維生素 D3 400 IU,以幫助寶寶每日所需。至於嬰幼兒維生素 D 補充每日上限則建議不要超過 1000 IU。  
2020-12-08

孕期營養五階段怎麼吃 ? 婦產專科營養師教你全攻略,完整版孕婦營養建議

    懷孕期除了健康的飲食之外,很多孕媽咪最好奇的就是孕期營養品如何補充,尤其寶寶的成長只有一次,因此很多孕媽咪都很注重每日食用的保健品,但是再不同孕期,最重要的是補充甚麼樣的營養品呢 ?  完整版孕婦營養建議 : 孕期 週數 媽媽體重 需補充營養品 備孕期     活性葉酸 (必須) 第一孕期 0至12週 增加1–2公斤 活性葉酸 (必須) 維生素B群 (必須) 維生素B6 (必須) 膽鹼 (必須) 魚油–高DHA&低EPA (必須) 第二孕期 13至28週 增加5公斤 維生素B群 (必須) 膽鹼 (必須) 鈣 (必須) 維生素D3 (必須) 魚油–高DHA&低EPA (必須) 益生菌 (選擇性) 第三孕期 29週至生產 增加5至6公斤 維生素B群 (必須) 膽鹼 (必須) 鈣 (必須) 鐵 (必須) 維生素D3 (必須) 魚油–高DHA&低EPA (必須) 益生菌 (選擇性) 卵磷脂 (選擇性) 哺乳期     鐵 (必須) 維生素D3 (必須) 鈣 (必須) 維生素B群 (必須) 魚油-高DHA&低EPA (必須) 益生菌 (選擇性) 卵磷脂 (選擇性) 備孕期: 在備孕期,準備懷孕的孕媽咪最重要的就是葉酸的補充,一天建議攝取量是 600-800 微克,但由於有些人有基因部分影響,因此食用一般營養品中的人工合成形式葉酸 (Folic Acid) 也無法利用,所以這階段活性葉酸是最好的選擇。活性葉酸的吸收率經過研究證實也比一般人工合成葉酸高出 98%。同樣食用葉酸,當然選擇活性葉酸效果較佳。 孕媽咪葉酸挑選重點: ❯ 活性輔酶形式葉酸 (甲基四氫葉酸葡萄糖胺鹽),不同於人工合成的葉酸,可以供人體食用後直接利用 ❯ 挑選膠囊形式易吞嚥,此外,膠囊較為天然,無添加物 ❯ 每日葉酸建議攝取量 600-800 微克,上限不要超過 1000 微克。 第一孕期: 第一孕期開始就是孕媽咪邁入迎接新生命的第一階段,這時候的寶寶發育非常重要,加上有些孕媽咪在第一孕期會經歷相當不舒服的過程,因此挑選適合的營養品,可以有效幫助孕媽咪度過最辛苦的第一階段。在第一孕期,重點補充除了葉酸之外,這時候維生素 B 群開始扮演著重要的角色,美國孕婦協會 (American Pregnancy Association) 也建議孕媽咪要補充維生素 B 群,但維生素 B 群應該怎麼挑? 孕媽咪挑選 B 群重點: ❯ 含活性葉酸的 B 群,有助胎兒的正常發育與生長 ❯ 含活性輔酶形式的維生素 B12 (甲鈷胺),能增進神經系統的健康 ❯ 含較高量維生素 B6,可以幫助孕媽咪度過第一孕期較為不適的階段,美國孕婦協會建議每日可補充 25-50 毫克的維生素 B6。至於維生素 B6 的上限,每日不要超過 100 毫克。 ❯ 膽鹼 – 膽鹼在研究上已經證實對於寶寶的發育扮演著非常重要的角色,膽鹼存在於許多食物中,但研究發現每日的攝取量還是不足夠,因此孕媽咪可以選擇單方的膽鹼來補充,或是選擇含膽鹼的維生素 B 群,更為方便。 至於在第一孕期,我們較不建議鐵的補充,因為鐵的部分,有些孕媽咪反而會加重不適的症狀,可以正常食用含鐵的食物,包含牛肉、羊肉等紅肉,或是菠菜等即可。除非是不愛吃肉,尤其是沒有吃紅肉的孕媽咪,那就建議要適量補充鐵質。 第二孕期: 第二孕期開始寶寶開始發育長大,孕媽咪的體重也開始慢慢上升,第二孕期體重建議增加 5 公斤為宜。而在第二孕期的重點除了持續補充 B 群之外,開始要加入鈣以及維生素 D3。在孕期,很多孕媽咪可能因為懷孕等影響會有腸胃較不舒服的狀況,因此若食用碳酸鈣等鈣質,有部分孕媽咪可能容易引起脹氣等狀況,因此一般較不建議碳酸鈣。海藻鈣雖然是天然來源,但形式上也是碳酸鈣,所以孕媽咪食用上可以依個人狀況選擇。 此外,鈣質部分,在攝取量一天會建議 1000 毫克以上,但我們對於鈣質的補充,建議 2/3 由營養品補充 (大約是 600 毫克),另外 1/3 由食物來源攝取,包括一天 1-2 杯的牛奶,或是食用含高鈣的食物,包括起司、豆腐、小魚乾皆可。另外要注意的是,鈣質攝取,單次不要超過 500 毫克,因為超過 500 毫克,吸收率就會降低,因此建議分次實用效果較好。 孕媽咪挑選鈣重點: ❯ 選擇紐西蘭牛骨鈣,牛骨鈣的形式與人體骨骼結構相同,因此吸收率好。此外,牛骨鈣還含有第一型膠原蛋白、各種礦物質、及骨蛋白和生長因子,是臨床研究上具有相當好成效的鈣質來源選擇。 ❯ 好的鈣質補充品,除了維生素 D3 之外,還需要添加維生素 K2,維生素 K2 可以促進骨質的鈣化,挑選的重點在於選擇 MK-7 形式的維生素 K2,而不是維生素 K1,因為維生素 K1 效果較差。至於維生素 K2 的含量,在衛生福利部國民健康署公布的國人膳食營養素參考攝取量 (DRIs) 建議女性及孕婦一天最少要 90 微克以上。 至於第二孕期開始,維生素 D3 也會建議開始加入日常補充,每日建議補充 600 IU,維生素 D3 除了對於鈣的吸收有幫助之外,對於孕媽咪還有很多的功效,因此有些專家或醫師甚至會建議有缺乏風險的孕媽咪可以補充 1000-2000 IU,但建議您是在專業醫療人士建議與評估後才能食用較為高量的維生素 D3。根據美國孕婦協會以及美國國家衛生研究院 (NIH) 的資料指出,維生素 D 的每日營養素上限值 (Upper Limit; UL) 建議 4000 IU 以內都是相對安全的含量。 第三孕期: 第三孕期除了鈣之外,加入最為重點的一個營養素就是鐵,鐵在第三孕期和哺乳期,都是非常重要的礦物質,因此建議攝取量也會比第一和第二孕期來的更高。而研究也顯示,孕媽咪在第二與第三孕期的鐵質補充,也是常被忽略的營養素。在國人膳食營養素參考攝取量 (DRIs) 建議第三孕期與哺乳期一天要補充 45 毫克的鐵,但鐵的補充,形式和單次食用量會影響甚大,若單次食用高劑量,可能會導致腸胃不適的狀況,也會導致吸收率較低。而在形式上,鐵的選擇一般建議甘胺酸亞鐵 (Ferrous Bisglycinate),甘胺酸亞鐵是屬於胺基酸螯合鐵,尤其以美國 Albion® 專利甘氨酸亞鐵 Ferrochel® (Ferrous Bisglycinate Chelate) 為最佳原料來源,效果比一般的反丁烯二酸亞鐵及檸檬酸亞鐵等效果來的更好,也不會導致便秘等狀況。 孕媽咪挑選鐵重點: ❯ 甘胺酸亞鐵是首選,因為較不易導致便秘等狀況 ❯ 單次低劑量,一天分多次食用,單次建議 15 毫克的甘胺酸亞鐵,一天可以補充鐵質 30-45 毫克左右,依照各人狀況或是婦產科醫師及醫療專業人士建議調整。 ❯ 鐵的配方選擇,建議要同時含有維生素 C、B6、葉酸與維生素 B12。維生素 C 可促進鐵吸收。 此外,建議含有維生素 B12 與葉酸,有助於紅血球的形成。維生素 B6 有助於紅血球中紫質的形成,有助於紅血球維持正常型態。在鐵的配方中含有這些輔助成分,可以加強食用後的成效。 在 Omega-3 部分,我們會建議全期都可以食用,至於選擇,建議每日含有 200-300 毫克以上的 DHA,並且含有少量的 EPA。EPA 對於孕媽咪是安全的成分,很多醫師及專家也都證實此一論點。而 EPA 對於高齡的孕媽咪更為重要,EPA 可以協助 DHA 的運送與吸收。但通常不建議食用太高 EPA 含量的魚油,建議大約 200 毫克以內較佳。DHA 仍然是孕媽咪補充的重點。 在哺乳期,產後的媽咪須持續重視鈣、鐵、魚油的補充及維生素 B 群的食用,仍然可以幫助乳汁中含有更豐富的營養。此外,產後的媽咪要照顧小孩更為辛苦,維生素 B 群可以幫助增強體力、精神旺盛、產前產後之補養。卵磷脂則是許多產後媽咪會食用的成分,雖然在臨床上沒有直接的研究證據顯示有幫助,但確實很多媽咪覺得有感。在第三孕期可以每日少量補充 1000 毫克,產後可以每日 3000 毫克,但卵磷脂屬於選擇性營養素,是否需要食用或要食用多少,建議您也可以詢問您的婦產科醫師、營養師、藥師等醫療專業人士。 再者,嬰幼兒最重要的營養素補充之一就是維生素 D3,台灣及美國兒科醫學會都建議,全母乳或半配方奶寶寶每日建議補充維生素 D3 400 IU,以幫助寶寶每日所需。至於嬰幼兒維生素 D 補充每日上限則建議不要超過 1000 IU。  
2020-12-08