How To Choose Bilberry? Let The Nutritionist Tell You The Tricks

    Based on a study published in Japan in 2013, which aimed at the inspection and evaluation of 20 types of wild bilberry products on the market. It found that the consumption on the label was 66 times different, and the amount marked on the packaging of 6 of them is even lower than the replenishment amount recommended by the Japanese official. Furthermore, there were even products with bilberry content lower than 20% of the declared content on the label. According to Japan's (Japan Health Food & Nutrition Food Association), the recommended daily intake of anthocyanins is 29 mg; converted, if the concentration of bilberry extract in a dietary supplement is 36%, it needs to contain at least 80 mg. If it is a lower 25% concentration of bilberry extract, you need to consume more than 116 mg. If this content is not reached the estimations, the effect may not be significant after consumption. The content and stability of anthocyanins in bilberry are greatly affected by different manufacturing processes. It is generally recommended that bilberry be manufactured at extremely low temperatures to maintain the stability and the activity of anthocyanins. This is the reason that the anthocyanins of some products did not meet the label of the packaging in that Japanese study. The differences between different raw material brands are great. The Unique Anthocyanins In Bilberries Bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) belongs to the Ericaceae family, and there are more than 450 species belonging to the genus Vaccinium. Therefore, the variety of the bilberry is very important. Generally, the anthocyanosides contained in bilberry are approximately 25% after standardized extraction, and the anthocyanidin contained in 100 grams of bilberry fruits is about 300-700 mg. The difference between this range mainly depends on the bilberries from different regions. MirtoSelect® is the most trusted brand of bilberry in the European and American supplemental market. MirtoSelect® has a unique HPLC sequence and has a specific fingerprint. In addition, MirtoSelect® has the highest concentration, at least over 36% (36 -39%) of anthocyanins. Due to this reason, MirtoSelect® has excellent effects and benefits after consumption. MirtoSelect® is the only top-grade bilberry that has been verified in animal and human trials. It is also the only bilberry extract supported by human date in the field of vision. Bilberry vs Blueberry, What Is The Differences? Bilberry has always been easily confused with blueberry. Although the fruit looks similar, it is completely different. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is mainly grown in Central and Northern Europe. Bilberries and blueberries have a different phytochemical profile and anthocyanins content of bilberry fresh fruits is almost 4 times higher in bilberries than in blueberries. Besides, the fruit of bilberry is smaller than blueberry. In addition, unlike blueberries, whose fruits are not produced in clusters, they are usually single or occasionally two when they grow. Moreover, bilberries pulp is blue/dark purple, that of blueberries is greenish. Bilberries are also harder and less juicy. Bilberry cannot be cultivated; it can only be obtained from wild sources. It is an extremely precious variety. In addition, the processing and extraction process of bilberry must be very careful and controlled at extremely low temperatures. If it is not processed in a frozen environment, the tissue damage will trigger the deglycosidation of anthocyanins, with detrimental effects on their chemical stability. MirtoSelect® undergoes a rigorous production process. Once harvested, the freshly collected berries are immediately frozen in ventilated tunnels at -35°C. The smaller fruits, stones, leaves and other impurities are strictly screened and removed by the machine, and next go through the color selecting process. The best quality of bilberries are then packaged and stored. Who Is Not Suitable For Eating Bilberry? Foreign professional studyings indicated that anthocyanosides have the effect of preventing platelet coagulation. The bilberry extract may interfere with anticoagulant drugs (such as Warfarin). Therefore, people who take anticoagulant drugs are not suitable for taking bilberry. It’s better to consult a physician or medical professional before taking. In addition, pregnant or breastfeeding women are generally not recommended to take the ingredient of bilberry as well. The Features of MirtoSelect® Bilberry Extract : 1. Nowadays, MirtoSelect® is the most widely trusted and researched bilberry extract brand. It is the only top grade bilberry that has been verified in animal and human trials. 2. In the specific field of vision, it is the only top bilberry brand that has undergone human clinical trials. 3. It contains the highest concentration on the market, containing more than 36% (36-39%) of anthocyanins. 4. MirtoSelect® is characterized by a very specific and consistent HPLC profile that represents the “fingerprint” of the extract. It is obtained from precious wild sources. 5. Extracted throught extremely low temperature (-35°C), the anthocyanin content is completely retained.  
2021-04-08

蛋殼膜是甚麼? 效果跟 UC2 相比呢? 讓營養師教你敏捷行動力的關鍵成分怎麼吃才有效

    蛋殼膜是甚麼? 蛋殼膜 (eggshell membrane) 是這幾年新興的保健食品原料,蛋殼以往都被認為是食用後剩餘的餘料。蛋殼係由五層所組成,自蛋殼之內側向外側有:內殼膜 (inner shell membrane)、外殼膜 (outer shell membrane)、乳頭層 (mammillary)、海綿層 (spongy matrix) 及角質層 (cuticale)。但科學家這幾年發現,蛋殼膜 (eggshell membrane) 富藏豐富的營養素,並且在許多領域已經獲得科學上的突破性驗證。根據統計,從 2011 年到 2013 年,每一年就有超過 30 篇以上的研究發表,這幾年更是大幅被應用在各項保健領域。 蛋殼膜的組成主要為蛋白質 (80-85%),而其中大約 10% 是膠原蛋白 (typeⅠ、Ⅴ、Ⅹ),70-75% 是其他蛋白質與醣蛋白。而在蛋殼與蛋殼膜的蛋白質加總有 500 種,即使是我們常說的食用蛋白也只有 148 種,而蛋黃內也只有 316 種,相比較下,蛋殼膜所含有的蛋白質才是整個蛋的精華成分。此外,蛋殼膜上更含有許多獨特的營養素,包含支鏈胺基酸、必需胺基酸、角蛋白、溶菌酶 (lysozyme)、卵轉鐵蛋白 (ovotransferrin)、卵清蛋白 (ovalbumin)、玻尿酸 (hyaluronic acid)、硫酸軟骨素 (chondroitin sulfate) 與葡萄糖胺 (glucosamine)。 蛋殼膜主要品牌選擇 目前蛋殼膜兩大主力原料商,一家來自美國,另一家就是來自歐洲 Eggnovo 的 OVOMET®。美國的蛋殼膜原料,在食用上需要每日食用到 500 毫克;而 OVOMET® 的蛋殼膜每日只需要 300 毫克即可達到成效,因為其純度高出近一倍,所以相對食用量更少,更為方便。兩家蛋殼膜都有臨床研究發表支持成效,而 OVOMET® 不僅在西班牙擁有兩項以上專利,更擁有美國 GRAS 認證 (安全無副作用),以及加拿大 FDA 功效佐證,而在臨床實證上,有別於以往葡萄糖胺等需要食用到數週到數月才有感受性,OVOMET® 萃取物只需 3-5 天就讓受測者普遍有感。   蛋殼膜與 UCⅡ® / UC2 的臨床比較,誰效果比較好? UCⅡ® / UC2 在行動力上面的保健功效,不容置疑,有許多的研究證實了 UCⅡ® / UC2 的功效,並且食用量極少,在原廠的臨床食用量上每日只需要 40 毫克。而在蛋殼膜上,也同樣經歷的大量的臨床證據,但這兩款的差異呢? UCⅡ® / UC2 的食用後體感度一般建議需要 90 天,而 OVOMET® 的體感度建議是 30 天。若同樣使用一般在評估上的指標 WOMAC 評分來看,OVOMET® 則是在體感分數上更為勝出。   在比較表上可以看到在食用十天後,OVOMET® 蛋殼膜已經開始有顯著的感受性,而在 30 天後,OVOMET® 的分數已經勝過 UCⅡ® / UC2 大約 1.7 倍,而在 60 天後,其 WOMAC 分數比較,OVOMET® 蛋殼膜的食用成效已經約是 UCⅡ® 的 2 倍。 雖然用單獨成分去比較,OVOMET® 的 WOMAC 指標評分勝過 UCⅡ® / UC2,但由成分以及在作用的機制去比照,其實各自所含的有效性成分不同,在人體的作用機制也有差異,UCⅡ® / UC2 主要含非變性第二型膠原蛋白,而OVOMET®除了第一、五、十型膠原外,還含有玻尿酸、葡萄糖胺、軟骨素與溶菌酶等成分,所以在食用上,其實兩者能夠搭配互補,更能夠帶來滿意的成效。 除此之外,OVOMET®主要來自蛋殼膜,UCⅡ® 主要來自雞軟骨,不像葡萄糖胺或軟骨素來自蝦蟹來源,可以避免許多對於海鮮有潛在性過敏的族群,食用後更為安全。 《 文獻來源 》 1. Lugo et al. Nutrition Journal (2016)15:14. 2. Garcia-Tabar et al. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2016 (26) S1-S15. 3. Garcia-Tabar et al. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte 2015; 32(5):314-334. 4. Blasco JMI et al. Int. J. Clin. Rheumatol. (2016) 11(5), 077-081. 5. Ruff et al. Clinical Rheumatology August 209; 28 (8):907-914. 6. Walbroel et al. The nature network 2011. 7. Schauss et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 201;60(16): 4096-4101.  
2021-04-08

山桑子怎麼挑? 讓營養師來教你怎麼選最頂級的山桑子

    在 2013 年日本所發表的一篇研究表示,針對市面上 20 款的山桑子產品進行檢驗評估,發覺標籤上的食用量差了 66 倍,而其中有 6 款其外盒標示的量甚至低於日本官方建議的補充量。而經過檢驗後,甚至有產品的山桑子含量低於標籤宣稱含量的 20%。而根據日本 (Japan Health Food & Nutrition Food Association) 訂定的每日建議花青素 (anthocyanins) 攝取量為 29 毫克;換算下來,若保健品的山桑子萃取物為 36% 濃度,則需含有 80 毫克以上,若為較低 25% 濃度的山桑子萃取物,則需食用 116 毫克以上。若沒有達到這個含量,可能食用後效果並不顯著。 山桑子中的花青素含量以及穩定性,則因為不同製程而有大幅的影響,一般建議山桑子要在極低溫下製造,才能保有花青素的穩定性與活性,這也是為什麼在日本的研究中,有些產品的花青素不符合外包裝標示,就是因為不同的原料品牌差異甚大。 山桑子中的獨特花青素 山桑子 (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) 屬於越橘類的果實,而越橘類共有 450 多種,因此在挑選上,山桑子的品種就非常重要。一般山桑子所含的花青素 (anthocyanosides) 經過標準化萃取後大約為 25%,而每 100 公克的山桑子果實中所含有的花青素 (anthocyanidin) 大約為 300-700 毫克,這範圍差異主要取決於不同地區山桑子的差異性。 MirtoSelect® 山桑子是歐美保健市場中最被信賴的山桑子品牌,MirtoSelect® 山桑子經過獨特的 HPLC 定序,擁有特定的指紋圖譜,此外,MirtoSelect® 山桑子擁有最高濃,至少超過 36% (36-39%) 的花青素 (anthocyanins),正因為如此,也讓 MirtoSelect® 食用後擁有絕佳的功效,MirtoSelect® 是唯一在動物於人體實驗都經過驗證的頂級山桑子,也是在特定領域唯一擁有人體臨床試驗成效的頂級山桑子萃取物。 山桑子 VS 藍莓,傻傻分不清楚? 山桑子一直很容易和藍莓混淆,雖然果實外觀近似,但卻全然不同。山桑子 (Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)) 主要生長在中歐與北歐。山桑子和藍莓所含有的植化素也全然不同,山桑子所含的有效成分 – 花青素 (anthocyanins) 是藍莓的四倍。山桑子的果實較藍莓小顆,不像藍莓為成串,通常都是生長時都是單顆或偶爾為兩顆。果肉顏色部分,山桑子果肉是藍色/深紫色,藍莓呈綠色。山桑子果實更堅硬,果實水分也較少。 山桑子本身難以人工栽種,只有野生採取的來源,因此極為珍貴。此外,山桑子的加工萃取過程,需要非常小心並控制在極低溫,一旦因為碰撞或加工導致組織開始受損,花青素就會開始去醣基化 (deglycosidation),導致穩定性受損或活性降低。MirtoSelect® 的山桑子,經過嚴格的生產製程,一旦採收便立刻冷凍至零下 35 度,並經由機器嚴格篩選剃除較小顆的果實、石頭、葉子等雜質,之後並經由選色過程挑選品質最佳的山桑子進行加工或儲存的過程。 誰不適合吃山桑子? 在國外的專業文獻提到花青素 (anthocyanosides) 具有預防血小板凝結的效果,所以山桑子萃取物有可能會與抗凝血藥物 (例如 Warfarin) 產生干擾作用,因此有服用抗凝血藥物的人,並不適合食用山桑子,或食用前請先諮詢醫師或醫藥專業人士。此外,孕婦或哺乳婦女一般也不建議食用山桑子的成分。 頂級 MirtoSelect® 山桑子萃取物特色 : 1. 現今最被廣泛信賴與研究的山桑子品牌,經過完整動物和人體臨床試驗確認成效 2. 在特定晶潤領域,是唯一經過人體臨床試驗的頂級山桑子品牌 3. 市面上最高濃度含量,含有 36% 以上 (36-39%) 的花青素 4. 具有獨家 HPLC 品種定序,含指紋圖譜,來自頂級的野生山桑子 5. 經過極低溫 (零下 35 度萃取),完整保留花青素含量  
2021-04-08

鈣跟鐵可以一起食用嗎? 別擔心,讓營養師來跟你說清楚

    鈣跟鐵能夠一起食用嗎? 在網路上的說法是鈣與鐵一起食用會干預鐵吸收,兩者會有競爭作用,所以千萬不能一起食用,最好間隔 2 小時以上;即使是許多的專業人士或機構也宣稱鐵不能和鈣一起食用。但這是真的嗎? 是否真的補鐵的同時食用鈣質,就完全無效呢? 讓我們來看看科學部分的證據。 許多短期的研究指出鈣會影響鐵的吸收,但這些研究主要是針對單一餐同時食用的結果。但其實針對長期食用狀態下的研究,調查針對不同飲食組成等的因素,發覺其實鈣對於鐵的吸收率並不會有顯著的影響。 而這些指出鈣鐵會互相干預吸收的研究,其準確性也遭受許多的質疑。其吸收率影響的多寡似乎根據不同的研究設計而有差異,包括測量吸收率的時間點,以及測量吸收率的方法。 此外,也有部分研究調查乳製品食物是否會影響鐵的吸收。在一項四天飲食的隨機交叉研究中,針對在三餐每餐同時飲用一杯牛乳,或是在同等含鈣量下,食用鈣加強的食物,結果發現並不會影響非血基質鐵(non-heme iron)的吸收。另一研究中發現,在一以植物蔬菜為主的飲食,同時額外食用牛奶或優格,並不會影響鐵的生物利用率。 在 2010 年的研究中發現,也許鈣跟鐵的吸收率短暫會有稍微的影響,但其實人體的腸道黏膜細胞,其基因表現會有所謂的反彈效應 (Rebound Effect),黏膜細胞會適應並進一步增進鐵的吸收率,因此長期食用,並不會有導致鐵質吸收不量甚引起缺乏的狀況。所以鈣跟鐵可以一起食用嗎? 其實根據許多研究的結果,是可以一起食用的,並不需要擔心。 《 文獻來源 》 1. Dawson-Hughes B et al. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44(1):83-8. 2. Hallberg L et al. Calcium: effect of different amounts of nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53(1):112-9. 3. Benkhedda K et al. Effect of calcium on iron absorption in women with marginal iron status. Br J Nutr 2010;103(5):742-8. 4. Minihane AM and Fairweather-Tait SJ. Effect of calcium supplementation on daily nonheme-iron absorption and long-term iron status. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(1):96-102. 5. Cook JD et al. Assessment of the role of nonheme-iron availability on iron balance. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(4):717-22. 6. Reddy MB and Cook JD. Effect of calcium intake on non-heme iron absorption from a complete diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(6):1820-5. 7. Lönnerdal B. Calcium and iron absorption–mechanisms and public health relevance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2010;80(4-5):293-9. 8. Grinder-Pedersen L et al. Calcium from milk or calcium-fortified foods does not inhibit nonheme-iron absorption from a whole diet consumed over a 4-d period. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(2):404-9. 9. Rosado JL et al. The addition of milk or yogurt to a plant-based diet increases zinc bioavailability but does not affect iron bioavailability in women. J Nutr 2005;135(3):465-8.  
2021-04-08

What Kind Of Vitamin B Supplements Is The Best?

    Vitamin B complex has always been one of the best-selling products in global dietary supplements market. Which vitamin B complex has the best effect? ​​Do you know what are the differences between different types? How to choose? Let our nutritionist tell you how to distinguish them. 1. The vitamin B complex emphasizes on the active form. This type of B vitamins has the best efficacy in clinical trials, and it is also the most commonly used ingredient in European and American dietary supplement brands. The active B vitamin ingredients include active B12 (methylcobalamin), active folate (methyltetrahydrofolate glucosamine salt), and vitamin B6 in the form of P5P. The active form of B vitamins have been proven to have excellent absorption rate. For example, the bioavailability of active folate is 10 times better than common folic acid in the market; meanwhile, the power of active vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) is 3 times more efficient than vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). Due to the higher price, these active ingredients are rarely used by the popular brands in the market, or may be added in lesser content level to lower the cost. However, the active form of B vitamins are the most effective ingredient that has been scientifically and clinically verified. Another key point of the active B vitamins (including the essential nutrient for humans – folic acid and vitamin B12) is its most special ability – provide methyl groups. The methyl groups have a decisive effect on the human body whereas other B vitamins don't have. Whether it is synthetic or natural, regardless of the absorption rate, the inactive vitamin Bs cannot provide methyl groups. As a result, they cannot regulate physiological functions. In fact, the effect that the active B vitamins can bring to the human body has greatly surpassed ordinary people's cognition that vitamin B complex only help boost energy levels. Active vitamin B complex supplement usually contains only one active ingredient, so the manufacturing of the formulation rely on the research and development capabilities of the brand. Many of the active vitamin B complex supplements are made by microbial fermentation, by doing so, the content is purer and the concentration is higher. It can be lower doses but have better results. 2. The vitamin B complex emphasizes on extracting from natural foods, such as yeast B-complex, buckwheat B-complex, or extracted from other food sources. This type of vitamin B group comes from natural food usually has lower concentration. As a result, you may have to take more capsules per day. Moreover, due to its low concentration, the odor/taste could be lighter. However, sourced from natural food is not equal to the active form! The effectiveness of vitamin B group is mainly determined by whether the form is active or not, even if it is derived from nature, its active content is low. The absorption rate of vitamin B complex extracted from natural foods is usually better than artificial chemical synthesis B complex, but it is still not as effective as the active type. Even though the concentration is low and the form is inactive, why do a bunch of supplements choose this natural yeast type of vitamin B complex? First of all, they are in it for the sake of the low price. Secondly, it’s less troublesome. Because the B group ingredients and content contained in the yeast B group are fixed and composed, the manufacturer only needs to purchase one raw material for processing and manufacturing whereas for the general B vitamins, you need to purchase a variety of different raw materials. In addition, because of the different content level, the raw materials purchased each time may not be used up at the same time. From the standpoint of the manufacturers, all of these increase the costs. Therefore, yeast or natural type of vitamin B complex supplements have become popular in recent years. 3. The inexpensive chemical synthesis type of vitamin B complex. This type is commonly found on the supplement market. Synthetic vitamins are not ineffective, but their component forms are not active forms, so the absorption rate is not as good. Besides, the quality of the raw materials varies greatly. Sometimes the synthesized type may have a very heavy odor/taste, so many manufacturers may use tablet form to avoid the unpleasant odor and prevent from moisture. In fact, the chemically synthesized type of B vitamins is the favorite raw material type for many manufacturers, because of its high stability, resistance to discoloration, and longer expiration time, which can extend sales and reduce overall costs. Next time when you want to buy vitamin B complex products, don't choose by price. Remember to go through the details on supplement label, so that you can choose wisely, and get the most benefit.  
2021-02-19

Is Vitamin D Supplementation Beneficial For Women During Pregnancy?

    The importance of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy is easily overlooked. Many people think that they can get enough vitamin D from the sun; however, they often neglect the factors influencing vitamin D via sun exposure. According to the analysis of the national nutrition and health data of the Ministry of Health and Welfare by professor Mei-Xuan Li from the School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, up to 98% of people have insufficient vitamin D concentration in the blood (the standard is 33μg/mL). The lowest vitamin D concentration was discovered among the age 19-44 group. The main reason is possibly due to the lack of the correct knowledge regarding vitamin D. The role of vitamin D in pregnancy is even more important, because the vitamin D level in mom-to-be would affect the vitamin D content of the fetus. Many studies have confirmed that vitamin D has different effects on women who are trying to conceive, in pregnancy and lactation. In 2009, an Australian study indicated that mothers with vitamin D deficiency had an average birth weight reduction of 200 grams in their neonates. Researches in the Netherlands also revealed that insufficient prenatal levels of vitamin D increases the risk of fetal underweight by 2.4 times. The importance of vitamin D in maternal and child health has been confirmed by more and more clinical studies. In addition, studies have found that the weight of pregnant women is very likely linked to the vitamin D deficiency. In another word, pregnancy overweight is related to low vitamin D content in the body. Compared with lean pregnant women (BMI < 25) – 36% of them lack of vitamin D, 61% of obese mothers (BMI > 30) suffer from a severe deficiency of prenatal levels of vitamin D. How much vitamin D should a pregnant woman take? It's generally recommended to take at least 400 to 600 IU of vitamin D3 daily. American Association of Clinical Endocrinology suggests to take 1500-2000 IU daily. If the pregnant woman is severely deficient, a higher dose should be supplemented under medical supervision. As for what is the safe dose range? A clinical study published in the journal “J Bone Miner Res” in 2011 indicated that a daily supplement of 4000 IU units of vitamin D3 is safe for pregnant women without side effects and can effectively increase vitamin D content in the body. The results from many other clinical trials also suggested that 2000-4000 IU per day for pregnant women is safe (Hollis BW, 2011; Hollis BW, 2013; Dawodu A, 2013; Grant CC, 2014). As for the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, the US National Institutes of Medicine (IOM) recommends an upper limit of 4000 IU per day.    
2021-02-19

孕婦應該補充維生素 D3 嗎?

    維生素 D3 對於孕婦的重要性很容易被忽略,特別是許多人覺得日曬就可以獲得足夠的維生素 D,卻輕忽從日曬獲得維生素 D 的影響因素很多,反而不容易經由日曬獲得足夠的維生素 D 含量。據國防醫學院公共衛生學系李美璇教授分析衛福部國民營養健康資料發現,高達 98% 的人,血液中維生素 D 濃度不足(標準是 33μg/mL),尤以 19~44 歲年齡層濃度最低,主要是因為對維生素 D 的認知不足。 對於孕婦部分,維生素 D 更為重要,因為孕媽咪體內的維生素 D 也會影響到胎兒的含量,許多研究都證實維生素 D 對於備孕、孕期、及哺乳的女性各有不同的影響。在 2009 年澳洲的一項研究發現,維生素 D 缺乏的母親,其新生兒體重平均會降低 200 公克。在荷蘭的研究也發現,母親維生素 D 不足,胎兒體重不足的風險機率增加 2.4 倍,其他還有更多的臨床研究證實維生素 D 對於孕媽咪的重要性。 此外,研究發現孕媽咪的體重與肥胖程度也與維生素 D 是否缺乏有關連性。孕婦孕期間肥胖與體內維生素 D 含量過低有關,61% 的肥胖女性 (BMI>30) 其孕前的維生素 D 嚴重缺乏,而 BMI 小於 25 的女性相比,只有 36%。 至於孕媽咪應該補充多少維生素 D,一般每日建議至少 400 到 600 IU 的維生素 D3;美國內分泌醫學會則建議每日補充 1500-2000 IU。若孕媽咪嚴重缺乏,則應在醫事人員的監督與建議下補充較高劑量。至於多少是安全的範圍? 在一項 2011 年發表於期刊 J Bone Miner Res 的臨床研究證實,每日補充 4000 IU 單位的維生素 D3,對於孕婦是安全無副作用的,並且能有效的提高體內維生素 D 含量。其他多篇臨床研究的結果也建議孕婦每日 2000-4000 IU 是安全的 (Hollis BW, 2011; Hollis BW, 2013; Dawodu A, 2013; Grant CC, 2014)。至於每日食用上限,美國國家醫學院 (IOM) 建議上限值為每日 4000 IU。    
2021-02-17

那種 B 群最有效? 營養師教你如何正確挑選 B 群

    維生素 B 群一直是市場的熱銷產品之一,但市售 B 群哪一種效果最好? 你知道各種不同形式差異在哪? 該怎麼挑選? 讓營養師來告訴你如何分辨。 1. 強調活性形式的 B 群。此種 B 群是在臨床研究上最有效的,也是歐美醫療通路品牌最常使用的成分。活性成分的 B 群例如所謂的活性 B12 (甲鈷胺)、活性葉酸(甲基四氫葉酸葡萄糖胺鹽)、或 P5P形式的維生素 B6 等。活性的維生素 B 群在研究上已經證實有著絕佳的吸收率,例如活性葉酸生物利用率是一般市售葉酸的 10 倍;活性維生素 B12 其成效也是一般市售維生素 B12 (氰鈷胺)的 3 倍。但由於其價格昂貴,所以市售品牌較少使用,或可能添加量較少。但活性形式的維生素 B 群是食用上經過科學研究與臨床驗證的最有效成分。 此外,活性 B 群的另一個重點,包括對人體最重要的葉酸與維生素 B12,其最特殊的能力是能提供甲基 (methyl group),甲基對於人體具有決定性的功效,這也是其他 B 群所無法提供的功能,無論是合成或是天然,無論吸收率多少,因為非活性 B 群本身就沒有帶有甲基,因此無法特定的調節生理機能。所以活性 B 群所能帶給人體的效用,已經大幅超越一般人對於只能幫助精神旺盛的認知。 活性維生素 B 群的原料通常是單方成分為主,所以在配方的製造與含量搭配上,就仰賴品牌商的研發能力。而活性的維生素 B 群許多是由微生物發酵所製成,所以含量較純,濃度較高,在食用也能滿足更少的食用顆數,但卻能帶來更好的效果。 2. 強調天然食物萃取的維生素 B 群,例如酵母 B 群、蕎麥 B 群、或是從其他食物中萃取的 B 群來源。這類 B 群通常在市面上販售主打就是天然,通常天然食物萃取的B群濃度低,因此可能要吃較為多顆,此外由於其濃度低,所以相對的 B 群味道較淡,但要注意的是天然食物萃取並不等於活性形式! B 群的效能主要決定在形式是否為活性,即使是天然萃取的 B 群,其所含的活性形式成分仍相當低。天然食物萃取的維生素 B 群吸收率通常已經較人工化學合成 B 群來的佳,但仍然不及活性形式 B 群來的效果好。 但濃度低,又非活性形式,為什麼市售一堆產品都要出天然酵母 B 群等產品? 主要是因為價格便宜,此外,可以省卻品牌商的麻煩。因為酵母 B 群內含的 B 群成分與含量是固定的,也已經搭配好,所以廠商只需要購買一種原料,即可加工製造。跟一般 B 群相比,需要採購多種不同原料,此外由於用量不同,每次採購的不同原料不一定能當次用完,對於品牌商而言,都是成本,所以酵母或食物萃取 B 群,成為這幾年的熱門產品,也是因為省卻了品牌商的麻煩。 3. 廉價的人工化學合成 B 群。這也是市售許多品牌所使用的維生素。人工合成的維生素並非沒有效用,只是其成分形式並非活性的形式,所以吸收率較差,此外,其原料好壞差異甚大,有時可能有著非常重的 B 群臭味,因此許多廠商可能用打錠的方式,並加上膜衣,除了可避免過重的臭味散發,也可以避免受潮。此外,化學合成的 B 群由於其穩定性高、不易變色、保存期限長可拉長販售時間,所以也是許多廠商愛用的原料,因為可以相對降低成本。 下次挑選 B 群時,別在單以價格去區分,記得多看產品上的標示,才能夠聰明挑選 B 群,食用有效益。  
2021-02-17

The Key Factor Affects Supplements Efficacy

    Natural food or nutrients extracted from natural sources have been the popular keywords in search engines in recent years. There have been many dietary supplements indicated their ingredients coming from natural sources, including natural yeast B group, etc. It seems that as long as the word "natural" is marked, consumers will trust and buy. However, the effectiveness of a supplement is not only decided by the naturalness and purity, the key factor affects the efficacy is actually the structural form. Unfortunately, the information regarding the structural form is unable to be presented fully in Chinese, which makes it difficult for consumers to make smart choice when it comes to pick up right supplements. Why does structural form matter most? Here are a few clinical evidences would help you understand : 1. The active form of folic acid, also known as (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate glucosamine salt, is 10 times higher absorption rate than ordinary folic acid. On the supplemental markets, “folic acid” is the most used form. Even the ones derived from natural yeast are also the general folic acid, which contains only a small amount of active folic acid. 2. The fish oil exists in natural fish meat is in the form of TG; however, TG form must be converted into EE form during concentration process. Many fish oil supplements are presented with EE form. In fact, the best concentrated fish oil must go through the process of re-esterification, by which it returns to TG form. This kind of concentrated fish oil is called re-esterified triglyceride (rTG). In many studies, the fish oil of rTG form has been proven that its effect is higher than the concentrated EE form. A study in September 2010 confirmed that the rTG concentrated omega-3 fish oil has the highest bioavailability, 124% higher than the general natural fish oil (non-concentrated TG form), while EE form fish oil has only 73% efficacy! 3. Vitamin E is a common ingredient in multivitamin, but it is also divided into natural and synthetic form. Natural vitamin E is generally labelled d-alpha tocopherol, its common extract source is soybeans. On the other hand, the synthetic vitamin E is labeled as dl-alpha-tocopherol. The difference between the two forms is obvious in English, but not in Chinese (in which collectively referred to as vitamin E). However, due to the difference in its structure, the efficacy of synthetic vitamin E is only about 12% of natural vitamin E. 4. Compare the vitamin D2 from natural foods (generally sourced from mushrooms) with the vitamin D3 from natural foods (generally sourced from lanolin), vitamin D3 has also been proven to be more effective than vitamin D2 in many studies. 5. Vitamin K, which is common seen in calcium supplements, also comes in different forms. Vitamin K2 is considered better than vitamin K1. In fact, vitamin K2 is divided into the form of MK-4 and MK-7, and MK-7 has been proven to be more effective than MK-4 and Vitamin K1 by clinical studies. 6. Vitamin B12 is a common ingredient in B-Complex products, the Methylcobalamin form has a higher bioavailability and utilization in human than the Cyanocobalamin form. Methylcobalamin can remains in the body for a longer period of time and at higher levels than Cyanocobalamin. Even the vitamin B12 in natural yeast B group uses the form of cyanocobalamin. The price between the two raw materials is 130 times difference. Methylcobalamin is measured in grams and is priced in ten thousand NT dollars per gram, while cyanocobalamin is about 2000-3000 NT dollars per kilogram. Although the active form is expensive, it’s the guarantee of the efficacy. The similar examples listed above are too many to mention. Basically, the lower the cost of the ingredients, the lower the price of the products, which is the reason the price difference of dietary supplements ranging from hundreds to thousands of NT dollars on the market. However, the effectiveness is relatively obvious. The truth is even the ingredients come from natural sources, the efficacy may not be the optimal. Therefore, focusing on the essence of nutrient – its structural form can ensure the best results. That is the mainstream in terms of choosing supplementation. Next time, when you are up to buying some nutritional products, in addition to get product recommendations/reviews online or by some advertisements, please remember to look closely the forms of ingredients of the supplements you want to buy. By doing so, you can buy with a peace of mind and then really benefit from the products. For the sake of health, it is important to spend money wisely on the effective products. No matter how cheaper the product is, if it has low potency, it doesn’t worth it at all.    
2021-01-20

營養品除了天然,食用成效還有更重要的決定性因素

    天然食物或萃取自天然來源的營養素,是這幾年熱門的關鍵字。市面上一窩蜂的出現號稱天然來源的營養品,包括天然酵母 B 群等,似乎只要打上天然兩字,消費者就會買單,但其實營養品的成效好壞,除了天然與純度等因素之外,最具有決定性的影響是其成分的結構形式,而這形式在一般中文上部分資訊並無法完整呈現,也導致消費者無法清楚選擇。 為什麼我們說 "形式" 是影響一個保健營養品最具有決定性的因素? 舉幾項臨床實證,你就會明瞭 : 1. 活性形式的葉酸,又稱為 (6S)-5-甲基四氫葉酸葡萄糖胺鹽 [(6s)-5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid Glucosamine Salt],與一般的葉酸 (Folic Acid) 相比較,身體利用率高出十倍。一般葉酸 (Folic Acid) 就是市面上絕大多數營養品的形式,即使是天然酵母來源的葉酸,也幾乎都是一般葉酸 (Folic Acid),只含有很微量的活性葉酸。 2. 魚油,天然魚肉中的魚油是 TG 形式,但要經過濃縮,必須轉變為 EE 形式,不少濃縮魚油商會直接以此形式販售,但最好的濃縮魚油,則必須再經過重新酯化的過程,將其重新變回 TG 形式,而此種濃縮魚油又稱為 rTG 形式魚油,rTG 的魚油在許多的研究中也證實其效果比濃縮EE形式魚油來的更高。在 2010 年 9 月份的研究證實,重新酯化型三酸甘油酯(rTG)型式的濃縮 omega-3 魚油的生物利用率最高,比一般天然魚油 (非濃縮 TG 形式) 高出 124%,而 EE 型式 (濃縮 EE 形式魚油) 只有 73% 的效力! 3. 維生素 E 是綜合維他命中常見的成分,但其同樣有分天然與合成形式,天然的維生素 E 是 d-form (d-alpha-tocopherol),常見萃取來源為大豆,人工合成的維生素 E 則是 dl- form (dl-alpha-tocopherol),在英文上可以看出明顯差異,但中文則沒有區分,統稱為維生素 E。但由於其結構上的差異,人工合成維生素E其效力大概只有天然的維生素E12% 左右。 4. 同樣來自天然食物的維生素 D2 (一般來源為蘑菇),以及同樣來自天然的維生素 D3 (一般來源為羊毛脂),維生素 D3 在許多研究也證實效果比維生素 D2 更好。 5. 鈣質產品中常見的維生素 K,有不同的形式來源。維生素 K2 比維生素 K1 好。而維生素 K2 又分為 MK-4 和 MK-7 形式,而 MK-7 在臨床研究上證實效果比 MK-4 和維生素 K1 都要來的好得多。 6. B 群成分中常見的維生素 B12,甲鈷胺形式 (Methylcobalamin) 比氰鈷胺 (Cyanocobalamin) 形式人體利用率更高,氰鈷胺食用後的流失速度也更快,但即使天然酵母 B 群也幾乎都是氰鈷胺形式的維生素 B12,兩者在原料上的差異價格差了 130 倍,甲鈷胺是用公克為單位,以萬元計價,氰鈷胺則是一公斤 2000-3000 元左右,活性形式的成分雖然貴,但才是食用後成效的保證。 這些例子不勝枚舉,但基本上效力越差的原料,其成本非常低廉,這也為什麼市面上你可以看到營養品價差從數百元到數千元都有,但食用後的成效相對的差異也很明顯。即使打著天然來源的營養品,其效果也不一定是最佳的,所以購買營養品還是回歸到營養素的本質,也就是其結構形式,才能夠確保食用後的成效,這也是國外營養品的趨勢主流。 下次當您購買營養品時,除了看五花八門的網路行銷與推薦文外,記得多回頭研究一下您購買的營養品形式,當個聰明的消費者,才能買得安心,食用有成效。為了身體健康,花錢購買營養品,選擇有效的成分才是重點;若是效能低落的營養品,無論價格多便宜,其實都是太貴。  
2021-01-20