Can Women Use Herbal Extracts During Pregnancy?

    In addition to being used in traditional Chinese medicine, there are more and more herbs used in general diets or nutritional supplements, such as green tea extracts, turmeric, etc. These well-known ingredients are all belong to the category of herbs. Generally speaking in terms of Western medicine, it’s actually less recommended for pregnant women to use ingredients containing herbal extracts, because many ingredients have not been approved by the FDA and have not been tested for safety in pregnancy. Therefore, it would be better to avoid the use of herbal products in diets or supplements during pregnancy in order to prevent potential safety hazards. Moreover, the manufacturer's extraction and processing technology will affect the purity of the back end and whether there are other residual components. In other words, even the same herb may have different qualities from different raw material suppliers. Although herbs are natural, they are not necessarily safe for pregnant women. Recommended by the FDA in the U.S., it is best to consult a physician or someone professionally trained in medical fields before taking any herbal ingredients during pregnancy. Because some herbs contain ingredients that may increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm labour, stimulate uterus, or they may be harmful to your baby during pregnancy. For the same herb, different parts may have different efficacy or different risks. In Taiwan, the Ministry of Health and Welfare have compiled a list of different parts of herbs as regulations. Some herbs may be safe in the daily diet; however, taking in large amounts or consuming high concentrations of extracts directly could be dangerous. Herbs commonly found in diets or dietary supplements include: Turmeric: Turmeric itself has good anti-inflammatory effects. In food, curries also contain turmeric, but they have been recognized as generally safe due to the low content. However, for the turmeric extracts (curcumin) in dietary supplements, because of its high concentration, experts usually recommend to avoid it during pregnancy generally. Because curcumin has not been tested for safety in pregnancy clinically, and excessive doses may lead to the potential risk of premature birth or miscarriage. Rosemary: Rosemary is also a widely used herb in food. For the solid rosemary leaves used as a spice in the diet, it is safe to eat due to small amounts. However, once rosemary is extracted and used as an additive in dietary supplements or medicine, it is not good for pregnant women. The American Pregnancy Association indicated that rosemary extracts in high concentrations or in medicinal doses can cause uterine irritation; thus, pregnant women are advised to avoid rosemary extracts. Two studies pointed to the potential hormonal effects of rosemary extracts (Lemonica., 1996; Zhu et al., 1998); the preliminary evidence showed that it can be embryotoxic, and it has been traditionally used as abortion pills. Therefore, pregnant women or women who are planning to conceive are advised not to take this ingredient. Besides, patients who are at risk of iron deficiency should also avoid rosemary because it can reduce iron absorption (Samman et al., 2001). In addition, people with coagulation-related disorders or taking anticoagulants, or those who anticipate surgery should also be aware that rosemary extract may increase the risk of bleeding due to its anticoagulant properties (Yamamoto et al. , 2006). However, due to its antioxidant properties, rosemary extracts are often added to fish oil products as an antioxidant to avoid fish oil oxidation in foreign countries. Anyhow, it is recommended to avoid it as much as possible during pregnancy. Therefore, if pregnant women choose common dietary supplements in the form of "soft capsules", such as fish oil, lutein, etc., please remember to check carefully whether they contain rosemary extract to prevent accidental Ingestions. Ginger: Ginger is another common ingredient used in our diet; as a spice, it’s safe with small amounts. In fact, ginger has been shown to relieve symptoms of nausea and vomiting while pregnant. Therefore, ginger has been used in some maternal dietary supplements to reduce the discomfort during pregnancy. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects approximately 80-90% of pregnant women, the only difference is the degree of discomfort. Most pregnant women experience both symptoms at the same time, a few of them have nausea without vomiting or retching, and very few experience only vomiting. It typically begins around week 4-9 of pregnancy, these symptoms get worst around week 7-12, and gradually decreases after week 16. About 15-30% of pregnant women continually experience the sickness until 20 weeks, or even before delivery. Some published studies have shown that giving pregnant women one gram of fresh ginger per day for four consecutive days could be helpful in reducing nausea and vomiting. In 2012, a study published by Plengsuriyakarn et al. indicated that a large dose of 5 grams per kilogram of body weight of ginger is still considered as safe and non-toxic. However, some experts pointed out that excessive consumption of ginger may be unsafe and advised to stop eating, especially for pregnant women who are about to give birth. Pregnant women who have had miscarriage, vaginal bleeding, or coagulation-related conditions are specially recommended not to eat ginger for the time being. Because high concentrations of ginger powder may increase the risk of bleeding due to the blood clotting reduction effects, especially when taking in with other herbs or medicines that have the same effect, the power will be enhanced. All in all, ginger is generally a safe ingredient for pregnant women, and many studies have confirmed that the daily consumption of ginger (ginger tea, ginger supplements, etc.) within 1000 mg is safe, and it can reduce the discomfort of pregnancy. However, if you want to take in large amounts of ginger powder, extracts or ginger tea, or if you have had a special medical history or condition during pregnancy, it is recommended to consult your obstetrician or medical professional before use. Ginkgo/ Ginkgo Biloba: In traditional medicine, Ginkgoa is a well-established medicinal plant. Ginkgo is commonly used in oral nutritional products as well; there are even chewing gums containing ginkgo on the market in Japan. However, in Taiwan's regulations, ginkgo biloba extract is listed as a medicinal ingredient and cannot be used in food. Only ginkgo fruit can be added to food. Ginkgo biloba is generally considered to have many phytochemicals, has antioxidant capacity and has been used to improve memory function, but this part of the effect is still questioned by many experts. As for pregnant women, it is recommended not to take the ingredients contain ginkgo, especially those who are about to give birth. Because ginkgo may have anti-platelet properties, it may prolong the time and risk of bleeding. Even for ordinary people, if you're planning to have surgery, stop taking ginkgo beforehand. During lactation the safety of ginkgo is still unknown, so it’s better not to use ginkgo at all as recommendation. Other common herbs to avoid while trying to conceive, during pregnancy, and lactation include : North American Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Saw Palmetto, Goldenseal, Ephedra, Yohimbe, Pay D' Arco, Passion Flower, Roman Chamomile, Pennyroyal and Aloe. During the time of trying to conceive, pregnancy, and lactation have certain needs for basic nutrients, including B vitamins, Omega-3, iron, calcium, zinc, and lutein. However, if you want to take herbal-related ingredients, it is recommended that you consult your obstetrician, physician or professionally-trained medical staffs before using to ensure the safety.


    草本 (Herbs) 或草藥在除了在中醫使用外,目前也越來越多成分使用在一般飲食或是營養補充品中,舉凡我們常見的綠茶萃取物、薑黃等其實都屬於草本範疇的成分。一般在西醫上,其實較不建議孕婦使用含草本萃取的成分,因為很多成分並沒有通過 FDA 核准做過孕婦安全性的試驗,所以基本上,孕婦的飲食或營養補充品,能夠避開最好,以免有潛在性的風險。加上即使是草本本身,但不同製造商的萃取技術與加工技術,會影響到後端的純度以及是否有其他殘留成分,所以即使同樣的草本,在不同的原料商也可能有不同的品質。 草本雖然天然,但不見得對於孕婦都是安全的。在美國 FDA 即建議孕婦若要食用任何含草本的成分,請先諮詢過醫師或是經過相關專業訓練的醫事人員。因為部分草本所含的成分有可能會導致流產、早產、刺激子宮收縮、或甚至傷害到胎兒的風險。而同樣的草本,不同部位也可能有不同的功效性或不同的風險,在台灣衛福部亦有針對不同部位的草本列為規範。而部分草本,也許在日常飲食中是安全的,但食用大量或是直接食用高濃度的萃取物亦有可能反而會有風險。 在飲食或營養補充品中常見的草本包括: 薑黃 (Turmeric): 薑黃本身具有良好的抗發炎效果,在我們飲食中的咖哩也含有薑黃的成分,但在飲食中的咖哩由於含量較低,一般公認較為安全。但若是經過萃取作為營養補充品的薑黃素 (Curcumin) 營養品,由於其濃度高,一般專家就會建議避免食用。因為具有藥效食用量的薑黃素並沒有經過臨床孕婦安全性試驗,而過高劑量有可能導致早產或是流產的潛在性風險。 迷迭香 (Rosemary): 迷迭香同樣是飲食中常見的香料,若在飲食中作為香料的固體迷迭香葉,基本上使用量少,是安全的,無須過度擔心。但一但經過萃取後作為添加物在保健食品中或做為藥效用的迷迭香萃取物 (Rosemary Extract),對於孕婦就不適合。 美國孕婦協會 (American Pregnancy Association) 指出迷迭香萃取物在含量較高或是藥用劑量下,會對子宮造成刺激,因此建議孕婦避免食用迷迭香萃取物。而兩篇研究指出,迷迭香萃取物由於其潛在性會對賀爾蒙造成的影響 (Lemonica., 1996; Zhu et al., 1998),初步證據顯示會有胚胎毒性 (Embryotoxic),而傳統上更有用作墮胎藥使用,因此建議懷孕婦女或是備孕婦女須特別注意不要食用到此成分。而缺鐵風險的病人,也應該避免食用迷迭香,因為其會降低鐵的吸收 (Samman et al., 2001)。 此外,有凝血相關疾病或是食用抗凝血藥的人,或預期手術的病患也須注意,因為迷迭香萃取物有抗凝血的特性而可能會增加出血的風險 (Yamamoto et al., 2006)。 而迷迭香萃取物由於其抗氧化特性,因此在國外常見添加在魚油保健品中作為避免魚油氧化的抗氧化劑使用。但建議在孕婦食用上,盡量避免較佳。所以孕婦若挑選常見的 "軟膠囊" 形式營養保健品,例如魚油、葉黃素等,記得先仔細篩選是否含有迷迭香萃取物的成分,以免不小心誤食。 生薑 (Ginger): 薑是飲食中常使用的成分,若飲食中少量作為香料調味使用是安全的。但生薑對於孕婦有另一層面的幫助,能夠降低孕婦孕期的噁心與嘔吐感 (Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy; NVP),因此在少數孕婦保健品中有添加薑的成分來降低孕期的不適感。孕婦孕期的噁心與嘔吐影響大約 80-90% 的孕婦,只是程度的嚴重與否。大部分的孕婦會同時經歷此兩種症狀,少數會有噁心感但沒有伴隨嘔吐或乾嘔 (retching),至於只有單純經歷嘔吐症狀的幾乎很少。通常孕期噁心嘔吐 (NVP) 大約在受孕後 4-9 週出現,而在 7-12 週時到達顛峰,而在 16 週後逐漸降低。大約有 15-30% 的孕婦,經歷此一症狀會持續到 20 週左右,或甚至到產前都還會有此種不舒服的感覺。 曾發表的研究指出給予孕婦每天食用一克的新鮮生薑,連續四天,發覺可以有效降低孕期噁心嘔吐症狀。而在 2012 年由 Plengsuriyakarn 等人發表的研究指出每公斤體重給予 5 公克的大量生薑仍然是安全無毒性的。但部分專家指出若過度食用大量的生薑萃取物,仍可能不安全,尤其建議在即將臨盆的孕婦先暫停食用含生薑的成分;而曾經有流產、陰道出血、或凝血相關狀況的孕婦,則建議暫時不要食用生薑,因為高濃度的生薑粉末可能會因為降低凝血作用而增加出血的風險性,特別是與其他有相同效果的草本或藥物一起食用會加強其作用。 總而言之,生薑對於孕婦來說一般是安全的成分,在許多研究上證實每日食用 1000 毫克以內的生薑 (生薑茶、生薑膠囊補充品等) 都是安全的,並且可以降低孕期的不適感。但若更大量食用生薑粉末、萃取物或飲用生薑茶,以及原本懷孕上有特殊病史或是狀況的孕婦,建議先諮詢過婦產科醫師或專業醫療人士後再使用。 銀杏 (Ginkgo/ Ginkgo Biloba): 傳統醫療裡,銀杏也常被當做藥材;銀杏也常見使用於口服營養品,甚至日本市面上還有含銀杏成分的口香糖。但在台灣法規部分,銀杏葉萃取物是不能用在食品的成份,是藥用成分,只有銀杏果才可以添加在食品裡。而銀杏一般被認為具有許多植化素,具抗氧化能力,並且改善記憶力的效果,但這部分的功能其實仍受到不少專家的質疑。 而在孕婦部分,建議不可食用銀杏的成分,特別是即將臨盆的孕婦。因為銀杏可能有抗凝血 (anti-platelet) 的特性,可能延長流血的時間與風險,即使在一般人,若有預期動手術等計畫,一般都會建議先行停用。至於在哺乳期,銀杏的安全性仍然未知,因此仍建議哺乳期孕婦禁止食用銀杏的成分。 而其他在備孕、孕期、哺乳期建議要避開的常見草本包括:Black Cohosh (北美黑升麻)、Blue Cohosh (藍升麻)、Saw Palmetto (鋸棕櫚)、Goldenseal (金印草)、Ephedra (麻黃)、Yohimbe (育亨賓)、Pay D’ Arco (保哥果)、Passion Flower (西番蓮)、Roman Chamomile (羅馬洋甘菊)、Pennyroyal (普列薄荷)、Aloe (蘆薈)等。 備孕、懷孕、與哺乳期對於基礎營養素的需求是肯定的,包括 B 群維生素、膽鹼、Omega-3、鐵、鈣、鋅、與葉黃素等。但若要食用草本相關成分,則建議您先諮詢過您的婦產科醫師,或經過相關專業訓練的醫師或醫療人員後再行使用,以確保安全。

Why Do Vitamin B-complex Supplements Turn Urine Yellow Color? Don't Be Fooled Around By Marketing-Oriented Rumors!

    We can often see information on the Internet that attempts to mislead consumers with wrong messages. Some consumers might be fooled around and misunderstand the dietary supplements. Today, we’re going to talk about a marketing-oriented misconception that often appears on the Internet about “why do vitamin B supplements turn urine yellow?” Rumor has it that the yellowish urine after taking B-complex vitamin is because this vitamin is chemical synthesis, it cannot be absorbed well. Therefore, this yellow urine is often teased as “expensive urine” (cannot be absorbed, just waste away). This definitely is a marketing-oriented misunderstanding! Why does urine turn yellow after taking vitamin B-complex? The main reason is due to vitamin B2; besides, vitamin B12 also has a slight impact. Vitamin B2 is commonly known as riboflavin, a term derived from the Latin word ‘flavus’ that means yellow. Vitamin B12 is found only in foods of animal origin; liver and egg yolk are the best food sources of riboflavin. One of the most important functions of vitamin B2 in the body is to provide energy. According to the literature quoted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), when a single diet or supplement consumption exceeds 27 mg, the body will only absorb a small part and store it in the body. The extra part is excreted through urine. Vitamin B2 is very safe, even if the consumption is high, there are few cases of side effects. In a study, even if the ultra-high content of 400 mg was consumed daily for three consecutive months, it is unlikely to cause any harm (by Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. 1998). To conclude, vitamin B2 is a very safe nutrient. Understand this is a metabolic mechanism, you should know the rumor of poor-absorbed chemical synthesis vitamin Bs make the urine turn yellow is false : 1. The yellow color of urine has nothing to do with whether the vitamin is natural or chemical, but with the amount that consumed. Whether it is natural or cheap chemically synthesized vitamins, if you take vitamin B complex without vitamin B2, your urine will not go yellowish; if your vitamin B-complex supplement has high amount of vitamin B2, your body will absorb enough amount of it, and the excess will be eliminated. As for how much the body absorbs and excretes, it is related to whether the individual's body needs and if the body’s reserves is sufficient (Lee and McCormick, 1983). 2. The yellow color of urine is also generally related to whether the individual drinks enough water. In regular diet, when you don’t drink enough water, your urine may still turn into a strong yellow. 3. According to the data of NIH, in daily food, beef liver (fried) is rich in vitamin B2, and every 3 ounces (about 90 grams) contains 2.9 mg of vitamin B2. The truth is if you consume a lot of beef liver, even though it is average food, your urine color may still look very yellow! Because it contains a high amount of vitamin B2. 4. After supplementing vitamin B-complex or multivitamin, the urine does not turn yellow, which may mean that the contents of the supplements are too low, which is not enough for the needs of human body, so there is no excess content to eliminate. Due to the difference of personal lifestyle and diet conditions, each person's demand for nutritional products could be varies. The high-quality vitamin B-complex and other dietary supplements should take into account individual nutritional requirements and differences, which means that they can met different people’s daily needs. When your urine turns yellow color after supplementing vitamin B-complex, it means that vitamin B-complex can well support your body's daily needs, and only a small superfluous amount will be excreted from the body. As for what kind of people belong to the high-risk group of vitamin B2 deficiency? Sush as : 1. Vegetarian athlete. Metabolism during exercise consumes a lot of vitamin B2, but vegetarians cannot get animal-sourced vitamin B2, so it is very possible they could suffer from vitamin B2 deficiency. 2. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and babies. Due to the increased physical needs of pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers, if they seldom eat meat or dairy products, as well as vegetarian pregnant women, there may be the possibility of vitamin B2 deficiency. 3. Vegan. A vegan diet usually does not have any source of meat, and if they do not consume enough dairy products, it is also a high-risk group that may be deficient in vitamin B2.  


    我們常常在網路上可以看到企圖用錯誤訊息來誤導消費者的資訊,導致消費者對於營養品本身的認知產生誤解。今天要來談談網路常出現的吃完 B 群尿液變黃代表食用化學維他命無法吸收,代表昂貴的尿液,這一個行銷導向的錯誤認知。 食用B群後為什麼尿液會變黃呢?最主要的原因在於維生素 B2,其次維生素 B12 也會稍有影響。維生素 B2 又稱為核黃素,英文名稱是 Riboflavin,flavin 來自拉丁文的字尾 flavus – 代表黃色,在食物中,包括蛋黃、動物肝臟等都是來源。而維生素 B2 在體內最主要的功能之一就是提供能量。根據美國國家衛生研究院 (NIH) 引述的文獻顯示,當單次飲食或補充品的食用量超過 27 毫克,身體就只會吸收一小部分並儲存在體內。多餘的部分,就經由尿液排出體外。維生素 B2 營養素,本身相當安全,即使食用較高食用量,也鮮少有任何副作用產生的案例。研究中,即使每日食用超高含量 400 毫克,並且連續三個月,也沒有任何副作用產生 (Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.1998),因此維生素 B2 是相當安全的營養素。 所以經由這個代謝機制,維他命是化學的所以無法吸收才會經由尿液排除是錯誤的觀念。 1. 尿液變黃,跟維他命是食物或化學無關,跟食用量有關。無論是天然或廉價化學合成的維生素,若食用不含維生素 B2 的維生素 B 群,尿液仍不會變黃;若食用含高量維生素 B2 的維生素 B 群,人體吸收足夠份量後,多餘即會經由尿液排除。至於人體吸收多少以及排出多少,則與個人身體所需與體內存量是否足夠有關 (Lee and McCormick, 1983)。 2. 尿液變黃,在一般來說,跟飲用水是否足量也有關。即使日常生活飲食,若飲水不足,尿液仍可能變為濃黃色。 3. 根據 NIH 的資料,在日常食物中,牛肝 (油煎) 就含有豐富的維生素 B2,每 3 盎司 (約 90 公克) 就含有 2.9 毫克的維生素 B2,所以若食用較多牛肝,即使屬於一般食物,因含有高量的維生素 B2,食用後,尿液還是可能會變黃喲! 4. 食用維生素 B 群或綜合維他命營養品後,尿液沒有變黃,則可能代表營養品中含量太低,對於人體需求根本不足,因此並沒有多餘含量可以排除。 由於個人生活型態作息以及飲食狀況不同,每個人對於營養品的需求程度也有差異。而高品質的維生素 B 群與營養補充品,應該要考量到個人營養需求與差異,代表在不同人以及不同的生活作息需求下,都能滿足。當食用維生素 B 群尿液變黃後,代表能補充人體每日足量需求,才會有額外少量排出體外。 至於什麼樣的人會屬於缺乏維生素 B2 的高風險族群呢?包含 : 1. 素食者運動員。運動過程代謝由於會消耗大量的維生素 B2,但素食者因為沒有動物性食物來源補充維生素 B2,因此有可能產生缺乏的狀況。 2. 孕婦、哺乳媽媽與寶寶。孕婦或哺乳媽媽因身體需求提高,若鮮少食用肉類或奶類製品,以及吃素的孕媽咪,有可能也會有維生素 B2 不足的可能性。 3. 純素者。純素飲食,通常沒有肉類來源,若加上沒有攝取足夠乳製品,也是維生素 B2 可能缺乏的高風險族群。  

10 Rumors About Fish Oil Supplements

    Rumor 1 : The "golden ratio" of EPA and DHA is supposed to be 3 : 2? Answer : Wrong. There is no so-called golden ratio, it is a marketing gimmick. The 3 : 2 ratio of EPA and DHA is mainly because the extracted fish oil from small deep-sea fish species (such as sardines and anchovies) contains approximately 180 mg (18%) of EPA and 120 mg (12%) of DHA per 1000 mg of fish oil. In fact, the ratio of EPA to DHA in fish oil varies by different fish species. For example, the ratio of EPA to DHA in cod liver oil is approximately 9% and 14% whereas the ratio in salmon is approximately 9% EPA and 10% DHA. In terms of the functions of EPA and DHA, everyone has different needs. In general, infants, school-age children, pregnant women, and silver-haired people have a greater demand for DHA. On the other hand, for people love to eat large amounts of fish and meats, or have physical conditions that may be caused by improper diet, their demand for EPA is relatively higher. There is no so-called golden ratio, everyone's needs are different, therefore different fish oil formulas are required. Some manufacturers take the easy approach and sell the same kind of fish oil to all people. This is not right. For example, children and pregnant women are advised to avoid consumption the fish oil with too high EPA. Rumor 2 : You can't co-supplement fish oil and calcium, there will be a saponification reaction, and even cause diarrhea? Answer : Wrong. Fish oil and calcium together do not produce a saponification reaction. This is a misconception. Let us first understand what is the saponification reaction. The occurrence of the "saponification reaction" mainly requires the existence of three conditions, including : Grease Strong alkali aqueous solution (such as sodium hydroxide, etc.) The temperature must be at least 70 degrees The saponification reaction is an exothermic reaction and a slower chemical reaction. Therefore, vigorous reactions such as constant and rapid stirring of the solution at high temperature or in a physical way are required to promote the reaction. After understanding the saponification reaction, let's get back to discuss the issue of fish oil and calcium. Basically, most of the calcium is neutral to weakly alkaline, so it is not compatible with the strong alkali required for the saponification reaction. If the calcium is a strong base, you probably already burned your mouth and stomach while you were supplementing with calcium capsules. For the temperature part, human body maintains a relatively constant body temperature, and the body temperature is kept at around 37.5 degrees C. Even if you have a fever, exceeding 40 degrees C is very serious; you should run to see a doctor in that case. How can it be possible to reach the 70 degrees required for the saponification reaction? In the digestive and peristaltic part of the stomach, there is a big difference from the rapid stirring required to cause the saponification reaction. It is difficult to form the conditions for the saponification reaction. Therefore, the co-supplementation of fish oil and calcium is safe and it doesn't cause the saponification reaction. Rumor 3 : What is the "Triglyceride Type" emphasized by fish oil products? Will it cause the lipid levels in my blood too high!? Answer : Wrong. "Triglyceride Type (TG)" represents the molecular type of fatty acids in fish oil. The natural triglyceride type of fish oil means that these fats are easier to be digested and decomposed during the digestion process, compared with the concentrated synthetic ethyl ester type (EE) fish oil on the market. It can increase the absorption rate and utilization of omega-3 fatty acids in the human body. As for "the doubts whether it will cause high blood lipids (triglycerides) ", actually this refers to another type of triglycerides. These blood lipids do not come from the fat in the die. Instead, due to the excessive consumption of carbohydrates, the body produces too much insulin in the blood for metabolism, which in turn leads to synthesis by the liver. Thus, fish oil in the form of triglycerides has nothing to do with your blood lipids! Rumor 4 : Dripping fish oil on the styrofoam will cause the styrofoam to melt, is it because the fish oil contains organic solvents!? Answer : Wrong. This issue is actually a completely wrong perception. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has previously published answers regarding the rumor. The explanation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare is quoted as follows: "For some fish oil supplements on the market, when dropping it onto styrofoam, the styrofoam was dissolved. The phenomenon is due to the EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) contained in fish oil has a higher content of "ethyl ester". The structural polarity of this component is similar to that of styrofoam, so it will be miscible with styrofoam, which is a normal phenomenon. The highly concentrated ethyl ester (EE) form in the fish oil is precisely the reason causes this situation to occur. This also means that you must not use styrofoam containers to contain concentrated fish oil products. On the other hand, concentrated fish oil in the form of natural triglycerides does not cause this situation. Rumor 5 : Some advertisements state that krill oil has a higher human body utilization rate of EPA and DHA, so taking krill oil is better than fish oil!? Answer : Wrong. In a randomized double-blind experiment published in the journal Lipids in Health & Disease in 2015, a total of 66 subjects targeted triglyceride fish oil (TG) and ethyl fish oil (EE) and krill oil (Krill Oil). After 4 weeks of continuous supplementation, it was found that at the same dose, compared with fish oil, the effect of krill oil is not much different in its bioavailability. In addition, krill is a shrimp-like crustacean, which plays a very important role in the marine food chain. Considering the significant impact of krill catching on the ecological chain, it has been explicitly prohibited by laws in the West Coast of the United States, Norway and Antarctica.  TruOmega's highly concentrated fish oil comes from small fish species, including sardines and anchovies. It is abundant in quantity, has a shorter life cycle, and reproduces quickly. It is not only less likely to accumulate environmental pollutants, but also suitable for a sustainable environment in terms of the source of fish oil. Rumor 6 : It says over the Internet that only supercritical extraction technology can extract good fish oil!? Answer : Wrong. This propaganda is from some specific manufacturers, and it is unfair. The process of extracting fish oil depends on different manufacturing plants using different technologies, including traditional wet pressing, supercritical extraction, molecular distillation and natural enzyme extraction. Each making process has its own patents and characteristics. Regardless of the technology, the focus is on the quality of the extracted fish oil. Just like fishing, fishing with a cast net or fishing with a fishing rod cannot define the deliciousness of the fish. Whether it is delicious or not is related to the fish itself, not by the method of fishing.  The effectiveness of fish oil supplements depends on three key points : freshness, concentration of EPA and DHA, and content per serving. To be fair, no matter what kind of extraction method, as long as the quality and indicators of the extracted fish oil can meet the international standards and specifications; it is a good fish oil supplement. Rumor 7 : It is dangerous for pregnant women to consume EPA-containing fish oil, but algae oil is safe!? Answer : Wrong. In fact, none of the studying mentions that taking EPA can put pregnant women at risk and there is no death has ever occurred. Instead, some studies have pointed out that a small amount of EPA has positive benefits for pregnant women. In fact, pregnant women can take EPA, but it is recommended to consume only a small amount of EPA. As a result, the fish oil with a high EPA content is not suitable under the circumstances. The omega-3 supplementation for pregnant women is generally recommended not to consume fresh seafood more than twice a week, because there may still be heavy metals or environmental pollutants. It is better for pregnant women to supplement with highly purified fish oil or algae oil supplementary source. It is also advised to consume at least 200 – 300 mg of DHA per day, because DHA is very important for the development of the fetus. As for the EPA part, it can be obtained from the diet or choose fish oil containing only a small amount of EPA. However, it is NOT recommended to supplement with the fish oil formulations with high concentrations of EPA. Rumor 8 : It is normal for fish oil to have a fishy smell, and it does not matter after consumption!? Answer : Wrong. In fact, the heavier the fish oil smell, the less fresh it represents. Just like if you eat fresh fish food or seafood, there should not be a strong fishy smell. The strong fishy smell normally means that the food has become corrupted. For fish oil supplements, the strong fishy smell also means that the fish oil has been oxidized and corrupted. The oxidized fish oil may cause nausea burps after taking. Researches have also found that oxidized fish oil with a strong fishy smell is harmful to the human body, which can cause many risks and side effects. To know if your fish oil is fresh, you can see whether the fish oil supplement has a freshness index test. The complete freshness index value includes the AV, PV and TOTOX. Or in an easy way, you can just puncture the fish oil capsule you have. If it appears a strong fishy or unpleasant smell, it means that your fish oil may have been oxidized and is not good for taking. The freshness of fish oil is also absolutely related to the efficacy. Rumor 9 : Edible linseed oil is the same as fish oil and has the same effect!? Answer : Wrong. Omega-3 essential fatty acids cannot be produced by the human body, so they are called "essential". Omega-3 essential fatty acids can be divided into two main types of sources : plant sources (linseed oil, walnuts, etc., containing ALA), or marine sources (fish oil, etc., containing EPA and DHA).
 The ALA of linseed oil can be synthesized into EPA and DHA in the human body. However, the rate of the human body converts ALA to EPA and DHA is slow and is affected by many factors. For example, the vegetable oils, fast food and baked foods may contain too much omega-6 in the diet, trans fatty acids, drinking, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies (such as vitamin B3, B6, zinc, magnesium, etc.). In addition, ALA is mainly used in the body as a source of energy, but EPA and DHA can directly improve and help our health.

 Deep-sea fish are the most direct source of EPA and DHA. According to researches, the human body's ability to convert ALA to EPA may only be 8%, while DHA is only 0.5%. Most people cannot even convert ALA to DHA. Flaxseed oil is a healthy oil, but it does not provide you with the benefits of EPA and DHA. Rumor 10 : The food in our daily diet can satisfy our demand for omega-3!? Answer : Wrong. In the United States, more than 95% of Americans cannot get enough omega-3 from their diet. Although Taiwan is surrounded by the sea and has a wealth of seafood food options, most people still do not eat fish twice a week. Especially under the busy modern life and westernized diet, it is even more difficult to achieve. Although most fish contain omega-3, DHA and EPA are mostly present in cold-water fatty fish, such as salmon, anchovies, or tuna. Other white or less fatty fish, such as cod or shellfish, contain less EPA and DHA. In addition, large fish species such as swordfish have a long life cycle in the ocean and contain more heavy metals or pollutants in their bodies. Therefore, they are not safe to eat, especially for pregnant women. How to get enough EPA and DHA? It is actually very simple. Choose TruOmega, it is fresh with high concentration content, and sourced from small deep-sea fish species. 1~2 capsules per day, you can easily meet the needs of your body for a day. The highly purified TruOmega is pure, safe and pollution-free; there is no need to worry about any possible environmental pollutants.  

魚油網路十大流言? 你知道幾個正解呢? 讓營養師教你破解網路謠言與行銷手法

    網路謠言一:魚油 EPA 與 DHA 應該是 3 : 2 才是「黃金比例」好魚油? 解答:錯。沒有甚麼黃金比例,那是行銷搞出來的噱頭。EPA 與 DHA 的 3 : 2 比例,主要是因為來自深海小型魚種,例如沙丁魚與鯷魚,其萃取出來的魚油中,每 1000 毫克的魚油內含的 EPA 與 DHA 大約含量是 180 毫克 (18%) 與 120 毫克 (12%),而這也是 3 : 2 比例的由來。 事實上,不同魚種萃取出的魚油其 EPA 與 DHA 比例多少會有所差異,例如鱈魚肝油的 EPA 與 DHA 比例大約是 9% 與 14%;而鮭魚中的比例大約是 EPA 9% 與 DHA 10%。而就 EPA 與 DHA 的功能來看,每個人的需求也不同,例如嬰幼兒、學齡兒童、孕婦與銀髮族等對於 DHA 的需求較大。而若是對於飲食大魚大肉,或是可能因為飲食不當而引起的身體其他狀況,這時候對於 EPA 的需求就比較大。因此並沒有所謂的 3 : 2 黃金比例,因為每個人的需求不同,就需要不同的魚油配方。所以有些廠商便宜行事,一款魚油賣百種人,這是不對的,例如兒童和孕婦就不適合食用太高 EPA 的魚油。 網路謠言二:魚油跟鈣不能一起吃,會有皂化反應,甚至引起拉肚子? 解答:錯。魚油跟鈣並不會產生皂化反應,這是錯誤的認知。 我們先來說明什麼是皂化反應。「皂化反應」的發生主要需要三個條件存在,包括: 油脂 強鹼水溶液 (例如氫氧化鈉等) 溫度至少要 70 度以上 皂化反應是一個放熱反應,加上是一個較慢的化學反應,因此需要在高溫下或是以物理方式不斷快速攪拌溶液等劇烈反應以促成反應的發生。 所以在了解皂化反應後,我們回來探討魚油和鈣的部分,基本上鈣質大多屬於中性到弱鹼性,所以與皂化反應所需要的強鹼是不符合的。如果鈣質是強鹼,那你補充鈣片的同時,大概口腔和胃早就已經灼傷了。 而在溫度部分,人體是恆溫的生物,體溫維持在 37.5 度 C 上下,即使發燒狀態,超過 40 度 C 就非常嚴重,要趕緊就診了,請問怎麼可能會達到皂化反應所需要的 70 度呢? 而在胃部消化蠕動部分,跟引起皂化反應所需的快速攪拌等劇烈反應差異甚大,很難構成皂化反應的條件,所以魚油和鈣一起食用,是安全無慮的,並不會引起皂化反應。 網路謠言三:魚油產品強調的 "三酸甘油酯型式" 是什麼?它會造成我的血脂過高!? 解答:錯。"三酸甘油酯型式 (TG)"代表魚油中的脂肪酸分子型式。而天然三酸甘油酯型式的魚油代表這些脂肪在消化過程中,與市面上的濃縮合成乙酯 (EE; ethyl ester) 型式魚油相比較,更容易被消化分解,並且增加 omega-3 脂肪酸在人體的吸收率以及利用率。 至於 ”是否會造成血脂 (三酸甘油酯) 過高的疑慮”,其時這裡指的是另一種型式的三酸甘油酯。這些血脂並非從飲食中的脂肪而來,而是由於食用了過多的碳水化合物,導致身體為了代謝,血液產生過高的胰島素,進而導致肝臟所合成出來。所以三酸甘油酯形式的魚油跟你的血脂是完全無關的! 網路謠言四:魚油滴在保麗龍上會導致保麗龍融化,是不是我食用的魚油含有有機溶劑,所以才會導致這狀況發生!? 解答:錯。這個議題其實是完全錯誤的認知,這項議題衛生福利部之前就公布解答闢謠過,關於衛生福利部的解釋引用如下:「市售某些魚油膠囊產品,如果將魚油滴在保麗龍上,發現有使保麗龍溶解現象,係因魚油中所含 EPA (二十碳五烯酸)、DHA (二十二碳六烯酸) 之「乙基酯」含量較高,而該成分結構極性與保麗龍類似,因此會與保麗龍產生互溶情形,此為正常現象。」而此種魚油的特性正是因為高濃縮的乙酯 (EE) 形式魚油才會導致此種狀況的發生,這也代表千萬別用保麗龍容器去盛裝濃縮魚油製品。 而天然三酸甘油酯形式的濃縮魚油,則不會有此種情形的產生。 網路謠言五:看廣告說磷蝦油的 EPA 與 DHA 人體利用率較高,因此食用磷蝦油比魚油好!? 解答:錯。在 2015 年發表於 Lipids in Health & Disease 期刊的隨機雙盲實驗中,共 66 位的受測者,分別針對三酸甘油酯型魚油 (TG) 與乙酯型魚油 (EE) 與磷蝦油 (Krill Oil)。 經過 4 週的連續補充後發現,在相同的食用劑量下,磷蝦油的效果與魚油相比,其生物利用率並沒有太大的差異。 此外,磷蝦是一種類似蝦子的甲殼類生物,在海洋食物鏈中佔有非常重要的角色,而考量到捕抓磷蝦對於生態鏈的重大衝擊,在美國西岸、挪威、與南極洲都已明確立法禁止捕抓。 而 TruOmega 的高濃縮魚油,來自小型魚種,包括沙丁魚與鯷魚,數量充足,並且生活週期短,繁殖速度快,不僅較不容易累積環境汙染物,對於永續環境而言,是相當適合的魚油來源。 網路謠言六:看網路上說超臨界萃取技術萃取出來的才是好魚油!? 解答:錯。這是特定廠商的宣傳手法,並不公正。萃取魚油的製程依據不同的製造廠使用不同的技術,包括傳統的濕式壓榨萃取 (wet pressing)、超臨界萃取、到分子蒸餾法及天然酵素萃取。各有專利與特色,無論甚麼技術,重點是萃取出來的魚油品質是否精純。就如同釣魚,用撒網釣魚和使用釣竿釣魚,並不會因為哪一種釣法釣起來的魚特別好吃,因為好不好吃跟魚本身相關,和捕魚的方法則沒有太大的差別。 魚油食用後的成效,取決於三大重點:新鮮度、EPA 與 DHA 濃度、以及食用含量。公正而言,無論哪一種萃取方式,只要萃取後的魚油品質與指標能符合國際標準規範,都是好的魚油。 網路謠言七:孕婦食用含 EPA 的魚油很危險,藻油才安全!? 解答:錯。事實上,沒有任何一篇文獻提到孕婦食用 EPA 後會有危險或是曾發生過任何的死亡案例。反而有研究指出,少量的 EPA 對於孕婦是具有正面的助益。孕婦可以食用 EPA,但建議食用少量 EPA,並不適合一般高 EPA 比例的魚油。 孕婦在 omega-3 的補充上,一般建議一週食用生鮮的海鮮類不要超過兩次,因為還是有可能會有重金屬或環境汙染物的殘留,而孕婦補充經過高度純化的魚油或藻油是較佳的補充來源。一般在孕婦的 omega-3 補充上,建議每日最少要食用 200 ~ 300 毫克的 DHA,因為 DHA 對於寶寶的發育相當重要,而 EPA 部分,可以藉由飲食中獲取,或選擇含少量 EPA 的魚油,但不建議食用高濃度 EPA 的魚油配方。 網路謠言八:魚油具有魚腥味是正常的,食用後沒有關係!? 解答:錯。事實上,魚油的腥味越重,代表越不新鮮。就像你食用新鮮的魚類食物或海產,並不會有濃厚的魚腥味,有濃厚的魚腥味,代表食物已經腐敗了。在魚油膠囊補充品中,濃厚的腥味,同樣代表魚油已經氧化腐敗,氧化的魚油不僅食用後,可能會導致反胃的打嗝 (burps) 反應,研究更發現帶有濃厚魚腥味的氧化魚油對於人體更有嚴重的負面傷害,會導致許多的風險與副作用。 魚油是否新鮮,可以看魚油本身是否有做新鮮度指標的檢驗,完整的新鮮度指標數值包含 AV、PV 與 TOTOX 指標。或是更簡單的方式,您可以刺破您食用的魚油膠囊,若帶有濃厚的魚腥味或腥臭味,代表你的魚油可能已經氧化,並不適合食用了。魚油的新鮮與否,跟食用後的成效也帶有絕對的相關性。 網路謠言九:食用亞麻籽油和魚油相同,具有一樣好的功效!? 解答:錯。Omega-3 必需脂肪酸人體無法自行製造,因此才被稱為「必需」。Omega-3 必需脂肪酸可分為兩大類來源:植物來源 (亞麻籽油、胡桃等,含有 ALA),或海生類來源 (魚油等,含有 EPA 與 DHA)。
 亞麻籽油的 ALA 在人體內可以被合成為 EPA 與 DHA。但是人體將 ALA 轉換為 EPA 與 DHA 的速率緩慢,並且受到許多因素影響,例如:飲食中的中式熱炒、速食與烘培食品中的植物油脂可能含有過多的 omega-6、反式脂肪酸、飲酒、與維生素和礦物質缺乏 (維生素 B3、B6、鋅、鎂等)。此外,ALA 在體內主要被利用來作為產生能量來源,但 EPA 與 DHA 則是直接對於健康有直接的改善與幫助。

 深海的魚類是 EPA 與 DHA 最直接的來源。根據研究指出,人體將 ALA 轉換為 EPA 的能力可能只有 8%,而 DHA 只有 0.5%,多數人甚至無法將 ALA 轉換為 DHA。亞麻籽油是健康的油脂,但並無法提供給你 EPA 與 DHA 的好處。 網路謠言十:日常飲食中的食物就可以滿足我們對於 Omega-3 的需求了!? 解答:錯。在美國,有超過 95% 以上的美國人無法經由飲食中獲得足夠的 omega-3。台灣雖然是四面環海,具有豐富的海鮮食物選擇,但大多數人,一週仍然沒有食用兩次的魚類食物,特別在忙碌生活與西化的飲食型態下,更難達成。 雖然大部分的魚類都含有 omega-3,但在深海中富含油脂的冷水魚含有最豐富的 EPA 與 DHA,例如鮭魚、鯷魚、或鮪魚等。其他白色或油脂較少的魚類,例如鱈魚或貝類,含有的 EPA 與 DHA 就較少。此外,大型魚種例如旗魚等,由於在海中生活週期長,其體內所含有的重金屬或汙染物也較多,因此食用上並不安全,特別是孕婦更應該注意。 至於該如何攝取足夠的 EPA 與 DHA 呢? 實際上非常簡單,選擇具有頂級新鮮度與高濃縮含量的 TruOmega,來自深海小型魚種,每日 1 ~ 2 顆膠囊,就可以滿足人體一天的需求,而經過高度純化的 TruOmega,純淨無汙染,無需擔心生鮮魚類中可能的環境汙染物危害。  

The Flavoring of Infant Dietary Supplements Will Influence His/Her Future Food Preferences And Eating Habits

    In many dietary supplements for infants and children today, many flavoring agents are often added to increase the flavor, such as grapes and strawberries flavors, so as to increase the willingness of the infants or children to eat. Generally, infants and young children’s willingness to take supplements has increased, which makes those novice parents’ life easier. However, studies have found that the flavor of food will greatly affect the future food preferences and eating habits of the infants and young children. In the diet of infants and young children, from breastfeeding to the consumption of dairy products or infant formula, and non-staple foods, the flavor of the chosen foods by these infants and young children would actually influence their future food preferences. Besides, these choices could potentially lead to deviations in diet, which may increase the risk of chronic diseases. Therefore, in terms of formula design, infant dietary supplements should specially avoid any food additives that do not come from the original taste of natural food, especially flavoring agents such as artificial fruit flavors. Let's look at a few interesting studies. In 2007, a survey regarding breast milk on the future eating habits of infants and young children found that compared with babies fed formula milk, the surveys aims at acceptance, eating frequency, and eating response found that breast-fed babies have higher acceptance of peaches. This is because the breastfeeding mothers usually have a variety of different fruits in their diet, the flavor of these fruits indirectly affects the taste of breast milk. After babies are fed with the breast milk, their acceptance of fruits will be higher in the future. This result also echoes a study in 2003 that breastfeeding babies are less picky on foods when they grow up, and are more receptive and willing to try unfamiliar foods. The more significant meaning behind this is that these babies will increase their willingness and consumption of vegetables and fruits in their later childhood growth stages. The choice of diet is equally important for breastfeeding mothers. In another study, infants were given vanilla-flavored formula milk. These infants consumed more formula milk and had extra power to suck. If researchers let nursing mothers consume vanilla-flavored milk powder, these babies will also notice the vanilla flavor in breast milk and show the same reaction when they suck breast milk. These reactions will affect the acceptance and choice of food and flavor after the baby grows up. Therefore, even breastfeeding mothers must pay great attention to the content of their meals, because the baby will feel the flavor of breast milk. In 2004, an US survey focused on infant and young children’s eating patterns warned that infants and young children’s acceptance regarding vegetables is lower than that of fruits, and 1/4 of children do not even eat a serving of vegetables a day. What is even more concerning is that these children prefer to eat fatty foods or desserts and drinks Instead. And such eating habits are affected from the beginning stage of their life, even extend all the way to grown-ups, and these kinds of food preferences may lead to more chronic disease risks in the future. By another study in 2002, in which infants and young children were fed different formula milk (including cow milk, soy milk, and decomposed protein) and the study had continued to track their dietary preferences until they grew up to 4-5 years old. The result indicated that different formulas influenced their testing subjects’ future choice of food flavors. For example, compared infants fed with protein substitute formulas with infant fed with milk formulas, the protein-fed infants were more likely to accept more sour flavored juices when they grow up. For the babies fed with formula milk derived from soy, they prefer the apple juice with a bitter taste. The follow-up tracking also found that the babies who were fed hydrolyzed protein or soy formula had significantly higher acceptance of broccoli and other vegetables during childhood. On the contrary, babies who were fed cow's milk formula had a lower acceptance of cauliflower when they grow up. These eating habits kept affecting their future eating choices when they grew into adulthood. This is not just for eating habits and food selection. There are many additives in food. In addition to artificial flavors and other flavoring agents, there are also many different additives such as artificial colors. These additives are more likely to bring negative health effects, including possible allergies, asthma, and neurological development damage, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), abdominal pain or diarrhea, etc. In another animal study published in 2018, it discovered that these spices or flavoring agents were cytotoxic or genotoxic in some animal studies, including subsequent physiological reactions such as significantly reducing the production of red blood cells. 《  Conclusion  》 Citing these documents includes additives that affect breast milk flavor from breastfeeding mothers’ dietary choices, as well as formula milk to fruit flavors in foods. These studies all point to a result. The dietary choices of infants and young children will affect their future growth in the consumption of fruits and vegetables and their dietary preferences, and which will play a key role in their health in the future. For infants and children, what should we pay attention regarding their diet? 1. In dietary supplements for infants and young children, avoid to choose products that contain flavoring agents such as fruit flavors. 2. Try to avoid products containing artificial additives, artificial flavors and colorings, etc., so that infants and young children get used to the original flavor of the food. Regardless of whether the label indicates natural flavors or artificial flavors, it may affect the acceptance of vegetables and eating habits in the future. 3. Nursing mothers should properly balance the food they eat, use natural ingredients as the main ingredient, and avoid eating foods with additives or artificial flavors. 4. For non-staple foods for infants and young children, pick the foods contain natural ingredients with original flavor. After the baby is born, the parents want to give the baby more complete nutritional supplements for the sake of baby's health. But when you give your baby dietary supplements, when he/she inadvertently eats harmful fruit flavors or other flavorings, which will affect his/her future growth and behavior. It’s like to put the cart before the horse. The baby grows only once, we should definitely be more careful about food choices.    


    在現今的許多嬰幼兒或兒童營養保健品中,常常會添加許多的調味劑來增加風味,例如葡萄、草莓等水果風味,以藉此增加嬰幼兒或兒童的食用意願。通常嬰幼兒的食用意願增加,也讓新手父母餵食的較為輕鬆。但在研究上發現,對於食物的風味,將會大大影響到嬰幼兒未來長大後對於食物的選擇以及飲食的習慣。 在嬰幼兒的飲食上,從哺乳開始到食用乳製品或嬰兒配方奶、以及副食品等,其實這些嬰幼兒食用的食物上的風味,會影響到其長大後對於食物的選擇,而這些選擇會導致飲食上的偏差,進而可能增加慢性病的風險。所以在配方設計上,嬰幼兒營養補充品特別應該避免接觸任何並非來自天然食物原本味道的食物添加劑,特別是人工水果風味等調味劑。 我們來看幾項有趣的研究。在 2007 年一項針對母乳對於嬰幼兒未來的飲食習慣調查發現,餵食母乳的寶寶跟餵食配方奶的寶寶相比,從接受度、食用頻率、食用反應等調查發現,餵食母乳的寶寶其對於桃子的接受度高於餵食配方奶的寶寶。這是因為當哺乳媽媽平時飲食中食用各種不同的水果,而這些水果風味間接影響到母乳的味道,而當母乳寶寶食用後,未來對於水果的接受度就更高。而這個結果也呼應了 2003 年的一項研究,餵食母乳的寶寶,長大後較不挑食,並且對於陌生的食物的接受度與嘗試意願都更高。而這更重要的意義是,在這些寶寶在之後的兒童生長階段,其對於蔬菜與水果的食用意願與食用量也增加。 而飲食的挑選對於哺乳媽媽而言也是同等重要,在另一篇研究中,給予嬰兒食用針對添加香草風味的配方奶,這些嬰兒對於配方奶的食用量都更多,而且吸吮的更大力。若研究人員改為讓哺乳媽媽食用含香草味道的奶粉,而這些寶寶,在吸食母乳時,同樣會感受到母乳中香草的風味而呈現出同樣的反應。而這些反應後續在嬰兒成長後將影響其對於食物與風味的接受度和選擇。所以即使是哺乳的媽媽,也必須極為注意其食用的餐食內容,因為寶寶會感受到母乳中的風味。 美國針對嬰幼兒的飲食模式調查,在 2004 年就提出警告,嬰幼兒對於蔬菜的接受度比水果更低,而1/4的兒童甚至一天沒有食用到一份蔬菜,更令人擔憂的是,這些兒童反而喜愛食用富含脂肪的食物或是甜點與飲料。而這樣的飲食習慣,就是從嬰幼兒開始受到的影響,甚至一路到長大成人,其對於食物的選擇可能導致未來更多的慢性疾病風險。 在另一篇 2002 年的研究指出,針對嬰幼兒餵食不同的配方奶 (包含牛乳、豆奶、與水解蛋白) 並持續追蹤其成長到4-5歲時的飲食偏好。結果發現不同的配方奶會影響到他們未來對於食物風味的選擇,例如餵食蛋白水解配方的嬰兒,跟餵食牛奶配方的嬰兒相比,餵食水解蛋白的嬰兒長大後比較能接受較酸風味的果汁;而餵食大豆來源的配方奶,比較偏好帶點苦味的蘋果汁。而後續追蹤發現,這些餵食水解蛋白或是大豆配方奶的嬰兒,在兒童時期對於花椰菜等蔬菜的接受顯著高出許多。餵食牛乳配方的嬰兒長大後則對於花椰菜的接受度較低。而這些飲食習慣,在未來成長為大人後,也將影響其未來的飲食選擇。 而不只是對於飲食習慣與食物的挑選,食品的添加物非常多,除了人工香料等調味劑,還有人工色素等許多不同的添加物,這些添加物更容易帶來健康上負面的影響,包括可能導致過敏、氣喘、以及神經上的發展損害,例如注意力不集中症候群 (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD))、和腹部疼痛或腹瀉等。在另一篇 2018 年發表的動物研究中發現,這些香料或調味劑,在動物研究中都呈現細胞毒性 (cytotoxic) 或基因毒性 (genotoxic),包括後續顯著降低紅血球的生成等生理反應。 《 結論 》 引用這些文獻,包含從哺乳媽媽的飲食選擇進而影響到母乳風味、以及配方奶到食品中水果風味等的添加物。這些研究都指向一個結果,嬰幼兒的飲食選擇,會影響到其未來成長後對於蔬果的食用及飲食的偏好,而這些飲食偏好將對於未來長大後其健康扮演關鍵的角色。 所以對於嬰幼兒與兒童,飲食該如何注意呢? 1. 嬰幼兒的營養補充品中,避免選擇含水果風味等調味劑的產品 2. 盡量避免含有人工添加物、人工香料、色素等製品,讓嬰幼兒習慣原本食物的風味。無論標籤上註明是天然香料 (natural flavors) 或人工香料(artificial flavors),都可能會影響未來成長後其對於蔬菜等的接受度與飲食習慣 3. 哺乳媽媽對於本身食用的食物,應盡可能均衡,以天然食材為主,並避免食用含添加物或人工風味的食物 4. 對於嬰幼兒的副食品,以原味的天然食材為主 當寶寶出生後,父母親為了寶寶的健康,而給予寶寶更完整的營養補充品。但給寶寶食用營養補充品時,卻不經意反而吃下有害的水果香料等調味劑而影響到其未來的生長與行為,這反而是本末倒置了,不是嗎? 寶寶的生長只有一次,我們是不是應該更小心食物的選擇呢!    

Can Calcium And Iron Supplements Be Taken Together? Let The Nutritionist Tell You The Truth

    Can calcium and iron supplements be taken together? On the Internet, rumor has it that taking calcium and iron together will interfere with iron absorption, and the two will have a competitive effect. Therefore, they should not be taken at the same time. It would be better to have at least 2 hours apart when supplementing the two. Many professionals or institutions also claim that iron cannot be consumed with calcium. Is it true? Is it completely ineffective to take calcium while supplementing iron? Let's take a look at the scientific part of the evidence. Many short-term studies have pointed out that calcium will affect the absorption of iron, but those studies mainly focus on the results of simultaneous consumption of a single taken. In fact, according to the research under the state of long-term consumption, in which the investigation aimed on different dietary composition and other factors, the result showed that calcium supplements does not have a significant effect on the absorption rate of iron supplements. The accuracy of these studies indicated that calcium and iron will interfere with each other's absorption has actually been questioned by many. The magnitude of the influence of the absorption rate seems to vary according to different research designs, including the time point of measuring the absorption rate and the method of measuring the absorption rate. In addition, there were some studies investigated whether dairy foods affect iron absorption. In a randomized crossover study of a four-day diet, in which it focused on drinking a glass of milk at the same time in each meal of three meals, or eating calcium-fortified foods with the same calcium content. The result discovered that the doing did not affect the absorption of non-heme iron. In another diet study based on plant and vegetables, the additional consumption of milk or yogurt at the same time didn’t affect the bioavailability of iron. In a 2010 study, it was found that the absorption rate of calcium and iron may have a slight impact on the short-term. However, as a matter of fact, the human colonic mucosal cells have a so-called rebound effect in their gene expression; mucosal cells will adapt and further increase the absorption rate of iron. Thus, the long-term consumption will not cause insufficient iron absorption or even deficiency. To conclude, can we take calcium and iron supplements at the same time? The answer is “yes” according to the results of many studies. No need to worry at all. 《 References 》 1. Dawson-Hughes B et al. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44(1):83-8. 2. Hallberg L et al. Calcium: effect of different amounts of nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53(1):112-9. 3. Benkhedda K et al. Effect of calcium on iron absorption in women with marginal iron status. Br J Nutr 2010;103(5):742-8. 4. Minihane AM and Fairweather-Tait SJ. Effect of calcium supplementation on daily nonheme-iron absorption and long-term iron status. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(1):96-102. 5. Cook JD et al. Assessment of the role of nonheme-iron availability on iron balance. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(4):717-22. 6. Reddy MB and Cook JD. Effect of calcium intake on non-heme iron absorption from a complete diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(6):1820-5. 7. Lönnerdal B. Calcium and iron absorption–mechanisms and public health relevance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2010;80(4-5):293-9. 8. Grinder-Pedersen L et al. Calcium from milk or calcium-fortified foods does not inhibit nonheme-iron absorption from a whole diet consumed over a 4-d period. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(2):404-9. 9. Rosado JL et al. The addition of milk or yogurt to a plant-based diet increases zinc bioavailability but does not affect iron bioavailability in women. J Nutr 2005;135(3):465-8.  

What Is Eggshell Membrane? How Is The Efficacy of Eggshell Membrane Compared With UC2?

    What Is Eggshell Membrane? Eggshell membrane is an emerging raw material used in dietary supplements in recent years. Eggshells were use to be considered as leftovers after eating. The eggshell consists of five layers. From the inside to the outside of the eggshell, there are: inner shell membrane, outer shell membrane, mammillary, spongy matrix and cuticale. However, scientists have discovered in recent years that eggshell membrane is rich in nutrients and it has verified by scientific breakthroughs in many fields. According to statistics, from 2011 to 2013, there were more than 30 research publications each year, and over the past few years it has been widely used in various healthcare fields. The eggshell membrane is mainly composed of protein (80-85%), of which about 10% is collagen (type I, V, X), and 70-75% is other proteins and glycoproteins. There are 500 kinds of protein in eggshell and eggshell membrane. Even the edible protein we often say is only 148 kinds, and there are only 316 kinds in egg yolk. In comparison, the protein contained in eggshell membrane is the essence of the whole egg. In addition, the eggshell membrane contains many unique nutrients, including branched chain amino acids, essential amino acids, keratin, lysozyme, ovotransferrin, ovalbumin, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and glucosamine. The Two Major Brands of Eggshell Membrane At present, there are two main raw material suppliers for eggshell membranes, one is from the United States and the other is OVOMET® from Eggnovo in Europe. The raw materials of eggshell membranes in the United States need to be consumed up to 500 mg per day whereas OVOMET® only needs 300 mg daily to achieve the same results. Because its purity is nearly twice as high, the relative consumption is lower, it’s more convenient. Both eggshell membrane brands have published clinical studies and supportive effects. However, OVOMET® not only has more than two patents in Spain, but also has the US GRAS certification, as well as the Canadian FDA efficacy support. In terms of clinical evidence, unlike glucosamine, which takes several weeks to months to see the effects, OVOMET® eggshell membrane extract takes only 3-5 days to make the test subjects feel the difference in the body.   The Clinical Comparison Between Eggshell Membrane and UCⅡ® / UC2, Which One Has The Better Effect? The health benefits of UCⅡ® / UC2 in mobility are indisputable. Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of UCⅡ® / UC2, and the consumption is very small. Only 40 mg per day is required for the original clinical consumption. As for eggshell membrane, there are also a lot of clinical proofs. What is the difference between the two? The body sensitivity of UCⅡ® / UC2 after consumption is generally recommended to take 90 days, while the body sensitivity of OVOMET® is recommended to be 30 days. If we use WOMAC Index score as reference, OVOMET® is more superior in somatosensory score.   It can be seen from the comparison table that after ten days of consumption, OVOMET® eggshell membranes have begun to have significant susceptibility. After 30 days, the score of OVOMET® has exceeded UCⅡ® / UC2 by approximately 1.7 times. After 60 days, compared with its WOMAC scores, the effect of OVOMET® eggshell membranes is about twice that of UCⅡ®. Although the WOMAC index score of OVOMET® is better than that of UCⅡ® / UC2 when compared with individual ingredients, compared with the ingredients and the mechanism of action, in fact, the effective ingredients contained in each are different, and the mechanism of action in the human body is also different. UCⅡ ® / UC2 mainly contains non-denatured type 2 collagen, while OVOMET® contains hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, chondroitin, and lysozyme in addition to type 1, 5, and 10 collage. Actually, in terms of dietary supplements, the two ingredients can complement each other and bring more satisfactory results. In addition, OVOMET® is mainly derived from eggshell membranes, and UCⅡ® is mainly derived from chicken cartilages. Unlike glucosamine or chondroitin from shrimp and crab sources, both of them can prevent people from potentially allergic to seafood; it is safer to eat. 《 References 》 1. Lugo et al. Nutrition Journal (2016)15:14. 2. Garcia-Tabar et al. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2016 (26) S1-S15. 3. Garcia-Tabar et al. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte 2015; 32(5):314-334. 4. Blasco JMI et al. Int. J. Clin. Rheumatol. (2016) 11(5), 077-081. 5. Ruff et al. Clinical Rheumatology August 209; 28 (8):907-914. 6. Walbroel et al. The nature network 2011. 7. Schauss et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 201;60(16): 4096-4101.